4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-6-isopropyl-2-(N-methyl-N-methylsulphonylamino)pyrmidine-5-carboxaldehyde/N-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-formyl-6-(propan-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]-N-methylmethanesulfonamide/4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-6-isopropyl-2-(N-methyl-N-methanesulfonylamino)-5-pyrimidinecarboxaldehyde/Methanesulfonamide, N-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-formyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]-N-methyl-/N-[4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-5-formyl-6-isopropylpyrimidin-2-yl]-N-methylmethanesulfonamide/N-[4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-5-formyl-6-isopropyl-2-pyrimidinyl]-N-methylmethanesulfonamide/INTERMEDIATE OF ROSUVASTATIN/4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-6-isopropyl-2-[(N-methyl-N-methylsulfonyl)amino]pyrimidinyl-5-yl-formyl/4-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-6-ISOPROPYL-5-FORMYL-2 (N-METHYL-N-METHANESULFONYLAMINO) PYRIMIDINE
536.6±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Smoking prevalence varies over time and place due to various social, environmental and policy influences. However, its spatio-temporal patterns at small-area level are poorly understood. This paper attempts to describe spatio-temporal patterns of adult (age > 18) and youth (age 12-18) smoking prevalence at the municipality level in Ontario, Canada and identify potential socio-demographic, environmental, and policy factors that may affect the patterns.
Multilevel temporal and spatio-temporal models were fitted to the Canadian Community Health Surveys (2000-2008) data. In total, approximately 160,000 respondents 12 years of age and over living in Ontario were used for this analysis.
The results indicate that during the time period 2003-2008, age-sex stratified smoking prevalence dropped for both the adult and youth populations in Ontario. The tendency is more obvious for youth than for adults. Smoking restriction at home is a leading factor associated with the decline of adult smoking prevalence, but does not play the same role for youth smoking. Despite the overall reduction, smoking prevalence varies considerably across the province and inequalities among municipalities have increased. Clusters of high and low smoking prevalence are both found within the study region.
The identified spatial and temporal variations help to indicate problems at the local level and suggest future research directions. Identifying these variations helps to strengthen surveillance and monitoring of smoking behaviours and the evaluation of policy and program development at the small-area level.
Spatio-temporal modeling, Smoking prevalence, Ontario, Canadian Community Health Surveys, Cluster analysis, Spatial distribution
Spatial and temporal patterns of smoking prevalence in Ontario
Gang Meng,corresponding author K Stephen Brown, and Mary E Thompson
Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly, about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Indian Plant Germplasm on the Global Platter: An Analysis
Sherry R. Jacob, 1 Vandana Tyagi, 2 Anuradha Agrawal, 3 Shyamal K. Chakrabarty, 4 and Rishi K. Tyagi 1 ,* Dragan Perovic, Academic Editor
Correction: Indian Plant Germplasm on the Global Platter: An Analysis
Sherry R. Jacob, Vandana Tyagi, Anuradha Agrawal, Shyamal K. Chakrabarty, and Rishi K. Tyagi