4-oxoazetidin-2-yl benzoate/4-benzoyloxy-azetidin-2-one/4-Benzoyloxy-2-azetidinone/2-Azetidinone, 4-(benzoyloxy)-/4-Oxo-2-azetidinyl benzoate
401.2±38.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:28562-58-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Exosomes are nanosized (30-100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosomes have been found to contain various RNA species including miRNA, mRNA and long non-protein coding RNAs. A number of cancer cells produce elevated levels of exosomes. Because exosomes have been isolated from most body fluids they may provide a source for non-invasive cancer diagnostics. Transcriptome profiling that uses deep-sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq) offers enormous amount of data that can be used for biomarkers discovery, however, in case of exosomes this approach was applied only for the analysis of small RNAs. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to analyze RNAs present in microvesicles secreted by human breast cancer cell lines.
Exosomes were isolated from the media conditioned by two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. Exosomal RNA was profiled using the Ion Torrent semiconductor chip-based technology. Exosomes were found to contain various classes of RNA with the major class represented by fragmented ribosomal RNA (rRNA), in particular 28S and 18S rRNA subunits. Analysis of exosomal RNA content revealed that it reflects RNA content of the donor cells. Although exosomes produced by the two cancer cell lines shared most of the RNA species, there was a number of non-coding transcripts unique to MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells. This suggests that RNA analysis might distinguish exosomes produced by low metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-436) from that produced by highly metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). The analysis of gene ontologies (GOs) associated with the most abundant transcripts present in exosomes revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding proteins involved in translation and rRNA and ncRNA processing. These GO terms indicate most expressed genes for both, cellular and exosomal RNA.
For the first time, using RNA-seq, we examined the transcriptomes of exosomes secreted by human breast cancer cells. We found that most abundant exosomal RNA species are the fragments of 28S and 18S rRNA subunits. This limits the number of reads from other RNAs. To increase the number of detectable transcripts and improve the accuracy of their expression level the protocols allowing depletion of fragmented rRNA should be utilized in the future RNA-seq analyses on exosomes. Present data revealed that exosomal transcripts are representative of their cells of origin and thus could form basis for detection of tumor specific markers.
Exosomes, Microvesicles, Next generation sequencing, Breast cancer, Biomarkers
Characterization of RNA in exosomes secreted by human breast cancer cell lines using next-generation sequencing
Piroon Jenjaroenpun,#1 Yuliya Kremenska,#1 Vrundha M. Nair,1,2 Maksym Kremenskoy,1 Baby Joseph,2 and Igor V. Kurochkincorresponding author1
Background: Epidemiological studies have assessed the association between kallikrein 3 (KLK3) polymorphisms and prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility. However, published data on this association are somewhat inconclusive. Methods: Articles investigating the association between three KLK3 (rs1058205, rs2735839, and rs266882) variants and PCa susceptibility were searched from online databases, which included 35,838 patients and 36,369 control participants. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to demonstrate the strength of the association. We also utilized ELISA to detect serum expression of KLK3. In addition, in silico tools were adopted to evaluate the relationship of KLK3 expression and PCa survival time. Results: The overall results indicated that polymorphism T>C of rs1058205 was associated with decreased risk of PCa (allele contrast: OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.64-0.88, Pheterogeneity < 0.001; homozygote comparison: OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.42-0.81, Pheterogeneity < 0.001), particularly in Caucasian population (allele contrast: OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.91, Pheterogeneity < 0.001; homozygote comparison: OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.41-0.82, Pheterogeneity < 0.001). No association was observed between the polymorphism A>G of rs2735839 and risk of PCa. In addition, no association was observed between polymorphism A>G of rs266882 and risk of PCa. Serum KLK3 levels in PCa patients carrying CC/CT genotypes were statistically lower than those carrying TT genotypes. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that rs1058205 polymorphism of KLK3 is a risk factor for PCa development, polymorphism T>C of rs1058205 is associated with decreased susceptibility to PCa particularly in Caucasian population.
Analysis, ELISA, KLK3, Polymorphism, Prostate cancer
Association between three genetic variants in kallikrein 3 and prostate cancer risk
Wei-Hong Ding,1,* Ke-Wei Ren,2,* Chuang Yue,3,* Jian-Gang Zou,3 Li Zuo,3 Li-Feng Zhang,3 Yu Bai,3 Atsushi Okada,4 Takahiro Yasui,4 and Yuan-Yuan Mi5
2018 Dec 21;
Hemoglobin variability is known to be associated with mortality in patients with chronic renal failure and cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of hemoglobin variability on mortality in the general population has not yet been studied. We aimed to investigate the association between hemoglobin variability and mortality using Korean cohort from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening 2002-2015 database. This study was conducted on 182,757 adults who underwent more than 4 health screenings from 2002 to 2009. Hemoglobin variability was assessed by 3 indices of coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation (SD), and variability independent of the mean (VIM). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed for each index of quartile groups (Q1-Q4). The hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval^l for all-cause mortality comparing Q2, Q3 and Q4 with Q1 of hemoglobin variability CV in the multivariable adjusted model were 1.07 [0.96-1.20], 1.18 [1.06-1.31] and 1.43 [1.29-1.58] respectively. As the 5% CV, SD, and VIM increased, the hazard ratio for mortality increased by 1.08 [1.06-1.10] in the multivariable adjusted model. Hemoglobin variability is not only important predictor in patients with chronic renal failure and cardiovascular disease but could also be considered as a useful predictor of mortality in the general population.
Subject terms: Biomarkers, Medical research, Risk factors
Association between long-term hemoglobin variability and mortality in Korean adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study
Minkook Son1 and Sung Yangcorresponding author1,2