4'-Bromomethyl-2-cyanobiphenyl/4744388/4'-(Bromomethyl)biphenyl-2-carbonitrile/Sartan Bromo biphenyl/4-BROMOMETHYL-2-CYANOBIPHENIL/OTBNBR/2-CYANO-4-BROMOMETHYLBIPHENY/NCR BR D1E/4`-Bromomethyl-2-cyanobiphenyl/4-Bromoethyl-2-cyanobiphenyl/2-Cyano-4'-bromomethylbiphenyl/4'-(Bromomethyl)-2-biphenylcarbonitrile/[1,1'-Biphenyl]-2-carbonitrile, 4'-(bromomethyl)-/4'-Bromoethyl-2-cyanobiphenyl/2'-Cyano-4-Bromomethyl/4-Bromomethyl-2'-cyanobiphene/4'-Bromomethylbiphenyl-2-carbonitrile/2-[4-(Bromomethyl)phenyl]benzonitrile/4-BroMoMethyl-2-cyanophenyl/4′-Bromomethyl-2-biphenylcarbonitrile/bromoethylcyanobiphenyl/Valsartan Impurity 14
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:114772-54-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Although morphologically similar, species of Cladophialophora (Herpotrichiellaceae) were shown to be phylogenetically distinct from Pseudocladosporium (Venturiaceae), which was revealed to be synonymous with the older genus, Fusicladium. Other than being associated with human disorders, species of Cladophialophora were found to also be phytopathogenic, or to occur as saprobes on organic material, or in water, fruit juices, or sports drinks, along with species of Exophiala. Caproventuria and Metacoleroa were confirmed to be synonyms of Venturia, which has Fusicladium (= Pseudocladosporium) anamorphs. Apiosporina, based on A. collinsii, clustered basal to the Venturia clade, and appears to represent a further synonym. Several species with a pseudocladosporium-like morphology in vitro represent a sister clade to the Venturia clade, and are unrelated to Polyscytalum. These taxa are newly described in Fusicladium, which is morphologically close to Anungitea, a heterogeneous genus with unknown phylogenetic affinity. In contrast to the Herpotrichiellaceae, which were shown to produce numerous synanamorphs in culture, species of the Venturiaceae were morphologically and phylogenetically more uniform. Several new species and new combinations were introduced in Cladophialophora, Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), Exophiala, Fusicladium, Venturia (Venturiaceae), and Cylindrosympodium (incertae sedis).
Anungitea, Anungitopsis, Cladophialophora, Exophiala, Fusicladium, phylogeny, Pseudocladosporium, systematics, Venturia
Opportunistic, human-pathogenic species in the Herpotrichiellaceae are phenotypically similar to saprobic or phytopathogenic species in the Venturiaceae
P.W. Crous,1,* K. Schubert,2 U. Braun,3 G.S. de Hoog,1 A.D. Hocking,4 H.-D. Shin,5 and J.Z. Groenewald1
Heterostyly is a common floral polymorphism, but the proteomic basis of this trait is still largely unexplored. In this study, self- and cross-pollination of L-morph and S-morph flowers and comparison of embryo sac development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) suggested that lower fruit set from S-morph flowers results from stigma-pollen incompatibility. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying heterostyly development, we conducted isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis of eggplant pistils for L- and S-morph flowers. A total of 5,259 distinct proteins were identified during heterostyly development. Compared S-morph flowers with L-morph, we discovered 57 and 184 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) during flower development and maturity, respectively. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions were used for nine genes to verify DEPs from the iTRAQ approach. During flower development, DEPs were mainly involved in morphogenesis, biosynthetic processes, and metabolic pathways. At flower maturity, DEPs primarily participated in biosynthetic processes, metabolic pathways, and the formation of ribosomes and proteasomes. Additionally, some proteins associated with senescence and programmed cell death were found to be upregulated in S-morph pistils, which may lead to the lower fruit set in S-morph flowers. Although the exact roles of these related proteins are not yet known, this was the first attempt to use an iTRAQ approach to analyze proteomes of heterostylous eggplant flowers, and these results will provide insights into biochemical events taking place during the development of heterostyly.
Comparative proteomic analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) heterostylous pistil development
Yikui Wang,#1,2 Ake Liu,#3 Wenjia Li,2 Yaqing Jiang,2 Shiwei Song,1 Yan Li,2 and Riyuan Chen1,* Serena Aceto, Editor
Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12, a senescence-specific gene encoding a cysteine protease, is widely used as a molecular marker for the study of leaf senescence. To date, its potential orthologues have been isolated from several plant species such as Brassica napus and Nicotiana tabacum. However, little information is available in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family. This study presents the identification of SAG12-like genes from the rubber tree genome. Results showed that an unexpected high number of 17 rubber orthologues with a single intron were found, contrasting the single copy with two introns in Arabidopsis. The gene expansion was also observed in another two Euphorbiaceae plants, castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), both of which contain 8 orthologues. In accordance with no occurrence of recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, most duplicates in castor and physic nut were resulted from tandem duplications. In contrast, the duplicated HbSAG12H genes were derived from tandem duplications as well as the recent WGD. Expression analysis showed that most HbSAG12H genes were lowly expressed in examined tissues except for root and male flower. Furthermore, HbSAG12H1 exhibits a strictly senescence-associated expression pattern in rubber tree leaves, and thus can be used as a marker gene for the study of senescence mechanism in Hevea.
Survey of the rubber tree genome reveals a high number of cysteine protease-encoding genes homologous to Arabidopsis SAG12
Zhi Zou,1,* Jianting Liu,1,2 Lifu Yang,1 and Guishui Xie