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The alteration of lipid metabolism in cancer cells is recognized as one of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer. Membrane rafts defined as plasma membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids serve as platforms for signaling regulation in cancer. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cholesterol metabolite, 4-cholesten-3-one, on lipid metabolism and membrane raft integrity in two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Its ability to reduce cell viability and migration has also been investigated.
RT-qPCR was performed to evaluate the expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, and ABCG1 and ABCA1 transporters involved in cholesterol efflux. Its effect on cell viability and migration was studied using the MTT assay, the wound healing assay and the Transwell migration assay, respectively. The effect of 4-cholesten-3-one on membrane rafts integrity was investigated by studying the protein expression of flotillin-2, a membrane raft marker, and raft-enriched EGFR by western blot.
Interestingly, we found that 4-cholesten-3-one treatment decreased mRNA expression of different enzymes including ACC1, FASN, SCD1 and HMGCR. We further demonstrated that 4-cholesten-3-one increased the expression of ABCG1 and ABCA1. We also found that 4-cholesten-3-one decreased the viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was neutralized after treatment with LXR inverse agonist or after LXRβ knockdown by siRNA. As a result, we also demonstrated that 4-cholesten-3-one disrupts membrane rafts and cell migration capacity.
Our results show that 4-cholesten-3-one exerts promising antitumor activity by altering LXR-dependent lipid metabolism in breast cancer cells without increasing lipogenesis.
4-cholesten-3-one; Breast cancer cells; Cholesterol efflux; LXR; Lipogenesis; Membrane raft
4-cholesten-3-one decreases breast cancer cell viability and alters membrane raft-localized EGFR expression by reducing lipogenesis and enhancing LXR-dependent cholesterol transporters.
Elia J1, Carbonnelle D1, Loge C2, Ory L1, Huvelin JM1, Tannoury M3, Diab-Assaf M3, Petit K1, Nazih H4.
2019 Sep 2
Cholesterol oxidase(ChOx) enzyme isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA(ChOxP) and Rhodococcus erythropolis MTCC 3951(ChOxR) strains as well as a commercial variant produced by Streptomyces sp.(ChOxS) were immobilized on silane modified iron(II, III)oxide magnetic nanoparticles(MNP) by covalent coupling methods. The nanobiocatalysts in case of ChOxP, ChOxR and ChOxS, retained 71, 91 and 86% of cholesterol oxidase activity respectively, as compared to their soluble counterparts. The catalytic efficiency of the immobilized enzymes on nanoparticles was more than 2.0 times higher than the free enzyme. They also showed enhanced pH and thermal stability. After 10 cycles of operation, the MNP-bioconjugates retained 50, 52 and 51% of residual activity in case of ChOxP, ChOxR and ChOxS respectively. The presence of enzyme on nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR, SEM and TEM. The nanobiocatalysts were used for the biotransformation of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol to 4-cholesten-3-one and 4-cholesten-3, 7-dione respectively, which are industrially and medically important steroid precursors.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cholestenone; Cholesterol oxidase; Immobilization; Magnetic nanoparticles
Cholesterol-oxidase-magnetic nanobioconjugates for the production of 4-cholesten-3-one and 4-cholesten-3, 7-dione.
Ghosh S1, Ahmad R1, Gautam VK1, Khare SK2.
Metastasis is a great challenge in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) therapy. Cholesterol has been implicated in ADC metastasis. 4-cholesten-3-one, as cholesterol metabolite and analog, can substitute membrane cholesterol and increase membrane fluidity. In this study, we explored the possibility that 4-cholesten-3-one inhibited ADC metastasis. Low-dose 4-cholesten-3-one significantly restrained ADC cells migration and invasion with little effects on cells viabilities. Further investigation showed that 4-cholesten-3-one promoted ROS generation, which transiently activated AMPKα1, increased HIF1α expression, reduced Bcl-2 expression and caused autophagy. AMPKα1 knockdown partly suppressed 4-cholesten-3-one-induced autophagy but, neither prevented 4-cholesten-3-one-induced upregulation of HIF1α or downregulation of Bcl-2. 4-cholesten-3-one-induced autophagy facilitated the release of HMGB1 from nuclei to cytoplasm, blocking nuclear translocation of HIF1α and activation of MMP2 and MMP9. Also, 4-cholesten-3-one induced time-dependent phosphorylation of caveolin-1, Akt and NF-κB. With increasing treatment time, 4-cholesten-3-one accelerated caveolin-1 internalization, but reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and NF-κB, and inhibited the expression of snail and twist. These data suggested that 4-cholesten-3-one could be a potential candidate for anti-metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
4-cholesten-3-one suppresses lung adenocarcinoma metastasis by regulating translocation of HMGB1, HIF1α and Caveolin-1.
Ma J1, Fu G2, Wu J1, Han S3, Zhang L4, Yang M5, Yu Y5, Zhang M1, Lin Y6, Wang Y7.
2016 Sep 22