(2R,3R)-3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one/dihydrotamarixetin/3,5,7,3'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone/dihydro-pyrrolo-pyrimidine/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-, (2R,3R)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
642.9±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:70411-27-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection with a much greater incidence in tropical regions and has now been identified as one of the emerging infectious diseases. The epidemiology of leptospirosis has been modified by changes in animal husbandry, climate, and human behavior. Resurgent interest in leptospirosis has resulted from large outbreaks that have received significant publicity. The development of simpler, rapid assays for diagnosis has been based largely on the recognition that early initiation of antibiotic therapy is important in acute disease but also on the need for assays which can be used more widely. In this review, the complex taxonomy of leptospires, previously based on serology and recently modified by a genotypic classification, is discussed, and the clinical and epidemiological value of molecular diagnosis and typing is also evaluated.
Leptospirosis is now identified as one of the emerging infectious diseases, exemplified by recent large outbreaks in Nicaragua (78, 100, 349, 507, 581), Brazil, India (645), southeast Asia, the United States (98, 102), and most recently in several countries as a result of the EcoChallenge Sabah 2000 competition in Malaysia (99, 126, 204). In the landmark Institute of Medicine report “Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States,” leptospirosis was used as an example of an infection which had in the past caused significant morbidity in military personnel deployed in tropical areas (340).
Much of the resurgent international interest in leptospirosis stems from several large clusters of cases which have occurred in Central and South America following flooding as a result of El NiNo-related excess rainfall (201, 332, 436, 581, 664). However, the occurrence of large outbreaks of leptospirosis following severe floods is not a new phenomenon and is not restricted to tropical regions (226, 232, 425, 442, 526, 590).
In this review, the epidemiology and clinical features of leptospirosis are described, recent taxonomic changes affecting the genus Leptospira are discussed, and advances in the diagnosis of leptospirosis by serological and molecular methods are analyzed.
Paul N. Levett*
Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (?180-280 kb) chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase) and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen.
ampicillin resistance, PBP5 mutations, PonA, chromosomal transfer, phylogenomic diversification
Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium Core Genomes and PBP5: Evidences of pbp5 Horizontal Transfer
Carla Novais,1 Ana P. Tedim,2,3 Val F. Lanza,2,3 Ana R. Freitas,1,2 Eduarda Silveira,1 Ricardo Escada,1,4 Adam P. Roberts,5 Mohammed Al-Haroni,5 Fernando Baquero,2,3,6 Luisa Peixe,1 and Teresa M. Coque2,3,6,*
In Europe, badgers (Meles meles) are recognized as major tuberculosis (TB) reservoir hosts with the potential to transmit infection to associated cattle herds. Recent studies in Spain have demonstrated that vaccination with a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (HIMB) successfully protects captive wild boar and red deer against progressive disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral vaccines against TB in a badger model: the live-attenuated M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin BCG vaccine (Danish strain) and a HIMB vaccine. Twenty-four badgers were separated in three treatment groups: oral vaccinated with live BCG (108 CFU, n = 5), oral vaccinated with HIMB (107 CFU, n = 7), and unvaccinated controls (n = 12). All badgers were experimentally infected with M. bovis (103 CFU) by the endobronchial route targeting the right middle lung lobe. Throughout the study, clinical, immunological, pathological, and bacteriological parameters of infection were measured. Both vaccines conferred protection against experimental TB in badger, as measured by a reduction of the severity and lesion volumes. Based on these data, HIMB vaccination appears to be a promising TB oral vaccine candidate for badgers in endemic countries.
tuberculosis, badger, BCG vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis heat-inactivated (HIMB) vaccine, efficacy
Protective Effect of Oral BCG and Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Vaccines in European Badgers (Meles meles) Experimentally Infected With M. bovis
Ana Balseiro,1,2,* Jose Miguel Prieto,2 Vega alvarez,3 Sandrine Lesellier,4 Dipesh Dave,5 Francisco J. Salguero,6 Iker A. Sevilla,3 Jose Antonio Infantes-Lorenzo,7 Joseba M. Garrido,3 Hans Adriaensen,8 Ramon A. Juste,2 and Marta Barral3