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The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class IIB region has greater genomic structural flexibility and diversity in the quail than the chicken
Kazuyoshi Hosomichi,1 Takashi Shiina,1 Shingo Suzuki,2 Masayuki Tanaka,2 Sayoko Shimizu,1 Shigehisa Iwamoto,2 Hiromi Hara,2 Yutaka Yoshida,2 Jerzy K Kulski,1,3 Hidetoshi Inoko,corresponding author#1 and Kei Hanzawacorresponding author#2
Influenza A viruses are major human and animal pathogens with huge economic and societal impact from illness, hospitalizations, and deaths. Virus-like particles (VLPs) of influenza virus have been suggested as a vaccine candidate offering improved safety and efficacy. To develop this concept further, we established a flexible platform to efficiently generate different subtypes of mammalian-expressed influenza VLPs. Here we demonstrate that these mammalian VLPs strongly resemble the authentic viruses in structure, particle size and composition of host factors, and even glycosylation of viral antigens.
In this study, a mammalian VLP system was established by stable co-expression of four influenza structural proteins (HA, NA, M1, and M2) in a Vero cell line. By replacing the surface glycoproteins of HA and NA, we converted the H3N2-VLP subtype to H5N1-VLP. After centrifugation purification of conditioned media, the particle morphologies, average sizes, and hemagglutination abilities of secreted VLPs were characterized, and the VLP constituents were identified by LC/MS/MS. Protease protection assays demonstrated that specific cellular proteins that co-purified with influenza virions were integrated into mammalian VLPs. The glycosylation profiles of mammalian VLPs as revealed by deglycosylation assays were similar to that of progeny viruses produced from Vero cells. Vaccination of mice with 2.5 µg and above of H5N1-VLP elicited H5-specific IgG1 antibodies and resulted in full protection against lethal infection with homologous virus. These results provide compelling evidence that mammalian VLPs closely emulate the exterior of authentic virus particles not only in antigen presentation but also in biological properties and should provide promising vaccine candidates.
This flexible mammalian influenza VLP system offers a superior alternative to the conventional reverse genetic vaccine platform without concerns over inadequate presentation of immune antigens or limitations imposed by the manipulation of real viruses.
Mammalian Expression of Virus-Like Particles for Advanced Mimicry of Authentic Influenza Virus
Chia-Ying Wu, 1 Yi-Chun Yeh, 1 Yu-Chih Yang, 1 Ching Chou, 1 Ming-Tsan Liu, 2 Ho-Sheng Wu, 2 Jia-Tsrong Chan, 3 and Pei-Wen Hsiao 1 , * Charlotte Hauser, Editor