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Objective: Cerebrovascular accidents are the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. We hypothesized that cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) of the dentate nuclei and the lower-limb representations in the cerebellum can improve functional reach during standing balance in chronic (>6 months’ post-stroke) stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based subject-specific electric field was computed across a convenience sample of 10 male chronic (>6 months) stroke survivors and one healthy MRI template to find an optimal bipolar bilateral ctDCS montage to target dentate nuclei and lower-limb representations (lobules VII-IX). Then, in a repeated-measure crossover study on a subset of 5 stroke survivors, we compared 15 min of 2 mA ctDCS based on the effects on successful functional reach (%) during standing balance task. Three-way ANOVA investigated the factors of interest- brain regions, montages, stroke participants, and their interactions. Results: “One-size-fits-all” bipolar ctDCS montage for the clinical study was found to be PO9h-PO10h for dentate nuclei and Exx7-Exx8 for lobules VII-IX with the contralesional anode. PO9h-PO10h ctDCS performed significantly (alpha = 0.05) better in facilitating successful functional reach (%) when compared to Exx7-Exx8 ctDCS. Furthermore, a linear relationship between successful functional reach (%) and electric field strength was found where PO9h-PO10h montage resulted in a significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher electric field strength when compared to Exx7-Exx8 montage for the same 2 mA current. Conclusion: We presented a rational neuroimaging based approach to optimize deep ctDCS of the dentate nuclei and lower limb representations in the cerebellum for post-stroke balance rehabilitation. However, this promising pilot study was limited by “one-size-fits-all” bipolar ctDCS montage as well as a small sample size.
cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation, dentate nucleus, computational modeling
Deep Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Dentate Nucleus to Facilitate Standing Balance in Chronic Stroke Survivors—A Pilot Study
Zeynab Rezaee,1 Surbhi Kaura,2 Dhaval Solanki,3 Adyasha Dash,3 M V Padma Srivastava,2 Uttama Lahiri,3 and Anirban Dutta1,*
In the crystal structures of the title compounds, namely μ-aqua-κ2 O:O-di-μ-diphenylacetato-κ4 O:O′-bis[(diphenylacetato-κO)bis(pyridine-κN)nickel(II)], [Ni2(C14H11O2)4(C5H5N)4(H2O)] (1) and μ-aqua-κ2 O:O-di-μ-diphenylacetato-κ4 O:O′-bis[(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)(diphenylacetato-κO)nickel(II)]-acetonitrile-diphenylacetic acid (1/2.5/1), [Ni2(C14H11O2)4(C10H8N2)2(H2O)]·2.5CH3CN·C14H12O2 (2), the complex units are stabilized by a variety of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, as well as C—H⋯π and π-π contacts between the aromatic systems of the pyridine, dipyridyl and diphenylacetate ligands. Despite the fact that the diphenylacetate ligand is sterically bulky, this does not interfere with the formation of the described aqua-bridged dimeric core, even with a 2,2′-bipyridine ligand, which has a strong chelating effect.
crystal structure, NiII dimer, carboxylate complex, Hirshfeld surface analysis, hydrogen bonds, π-stacking
Crystal structures of two dimeric nickel diphenylacetate complexes
A. A. Nikiforov,a,b D. O. Blinou,a E. N. Dubrov,a N. S. Panina,a A. I. Ponyaev,a V. V. Gurzhiy,c,‡ A. V. Eremin,b,d,* and A. I. Fischera
2019 Nov 1;
The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae.
Generic concepts, Nectriaceae, Phylogeny, Taxonomy
Generic concepts in Nectriaceae
L. Lombard,1,∗ N.A. van der Merwe,2 J.Z. Groenewald,1 and P.W. Crous1,3,4,∗