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5 alpha-Hydroxychloranthalactone A


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The descriptive taxonomic study reported here is focused on Glyptapanteles, a species-rich genus of hymenopteran parasitoid wasps. The species were found within the framework of two independent long-term Neotropical caterpillar rearing projects: northwestern Costa Rica (area de Conservacion Guanacaste, ACG) and eastern Andes, Ecuador (centered on Yanayacu Biological Station, YBS). One hundred thirty-six new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead are described and all of them are authored by Arias-Penna. None of them was recorded in both countries; thus, 78 are from Costa Rica and the remaining 58 from Ecuador. Before this revision, the number of Neotropical described Glyptapanteles did not reach double digits. Reasonable boundaries among species were generated by integrating three datasets: Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene sequencing data, natural history (host records), and external morphological characters. Each species description is accompanied by images and known geographical distribution. Characteristics such as shape, ornamentation, and location of spun Glyptapanteles cocoons were imaged as well. Host-parasitoid associations and food plants are also here published for the first time. A total of 88 species within 84 genera in 15 Lepidoptera families was encountered as hosts in the field. With respect to food plants, these wild-caught parasitized caterpillars were reared on leaves of 147 species within 118 genera in 60 families. The majority of Glyptapanteles species appeared to be relatively specialized on one family of Lepidoptera or even on some much lower level of taxonomic refinement. Those herbivores in turn are highly food-plant specialized, and once caterpillars were collected, early instars (1-3) yielded more parasitoids than later instars. Glyptapanteles jimmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov. is the first egg-larval parasitoid recorded within the genus, though there may be many more since such natural history requires a more focused collection of eggs. The rate of hyperparasitoidism within the genus was approximately 4% and was represented by Mesochorus spp. (Ichneumonidae). A single case of multiparasitoidism was reported, Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Encyrtidae) and Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. both parasitoid species emerged from the caterpillar of Noctuidae: Condica cupienta (Cramer). Bodyguard behavior was observed in two Glyptapanteles species: G. howelldalyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. and G. paulhansoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov. A dichotomous key for all the new species is provided. The numerous species described here, and an equal number already reared but not formally described, signal a far greater Glyptapanteles species richness in the Neotropics than suggested by the few described previously.


Central America, diversity, mtDNA, natural history, parasitoid wasps, South America


A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador


Diana Carolina Arias-Penna,corresponding author1 James B. Whitfield,1 Daniel H. Janzen,2 Winifred Hallwachs,3 Lee A. Dyer,4 M. Alex Smith,5 Paul D.N. Hebert,6 and Jose L. Fernandez-Triana7

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Background: Few cohort studies of pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa use rigorous gestational age dating and clinical phenotyping. As a result, incidence and risk factors of adverse birth outcomes are inadequately characterized.

Methods: The Zambian Preterm Birth Prevention Study (ZAPPS) is a prospective observational cohort established to investigate adverse birth outcomes at a referral hospital in urban Lusaka. This report describes ZAPPS phase I, enrolled August 2015 to September 2017. Women were followed through pregnancy and 42 days postpartum. At delivery, study staff assessed neonatal vital status, birthweight, and sex, and assigned a delivery phenotype. Primary outcomes were: (1) preterm birth (PTB; delivery <37 weeks), (2) small-for-gestational-age (SGA; <10 th percentile weight-for-age at birth), and (3) stillbirth (SB; delivery of an infant without signs of life). Results: ZAPPS phase I enrolled 1450 women with median age 27 years (IQR 23-32). Most participants (68%) were multiparous, of whom 41% reported a prior PTB and 14% reported a prior stillbirth. Twins were present in 3% of pregnancies, 3% of women had short cervix (<25mm), 24% of women were HIV seropositive, and 5% were syphilis seropositive. Of 1216 (84%) retained at delivery, 15% were preterm, 18% small-for-gestational-age, and 4% stillborn. PTB risk was higher with prior PTB (aRR 1.88; 95%CI 1.32-2.68), short cervix (aRR 2.62; 95%CI 1.68-4.09), twins (aRR 5.22; 95%CI 3.67-7.43), and antenatal hypertension (aRR 2.04; 95%CI 1.43-2.91). SGA risk was higher with twins (aRR 2.75; 95%CI 1.81-4.18) and antenatal hypertension (aRR 1.62; 95%CI 1.16-2.26). SB risk was higher with short cervix (aRR 6.42; 95%CI 2.56-16.1). Conclusio ns: This study confirms high rates of PTB, SGA, and SB among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Accurate gestational age dating and careful ascertainment of delivery data are critical to understanding the scope of adverse birth outcomes in low-resource settings.


adverse birth outcomes, pregnancy, preterm birth, small for gestational age, stillbirth, sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia


Adverse birth outcomes and their clinical phenotypes in an urban Zambian cohort


Joan T Price, Conceptualization, Data Curation, Formal Analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project Administration, Supervision, Visualization, Writing - Original Draft Preparation, Writing - Review & Editing,a,1,2,3 Bellington Vwalika, Conceptualization, Funding Acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Writing - Review & Editing,2 Katelyn J Rittenhouse, Data Curation, Formal Analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project Administration, Writing - Original Draft Preparation, Writing - Review & Editing,1 Humphrey Mwape, Investigation, Methodology, Project Administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Writing - Review & Editing,3 Jennifer Winston, Data Curation, Formal Analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project Administration, Software, Supervision, Validation, Writing - Review & Editing,1 Bethany L Freeman, Conceptualization, Funding Acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project Administration, Supervision, Writing - Review & Editing,1 Ntazana Sindano, Data Curation, Investigation, Methodology, Project Administration, Software, Validation, Writing - Review & Editing,3 Elizabeth M Stringer, Conceptualization, Funding Acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing - Review & Editing,1 Margaret P Kasaro, Conceptualization, Funding Acquisition, Methodology, Project Administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - Review & Editing,3 Benjamin H Chi, Conceptualization, Funding Acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Writing - Review & Editing,1 and Jeffrey SA Stringer, Conceptualization, Data Curation, Formal Analysis, Funding Acquisition, Methodology, Project Administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - Original Draft Preparation, Writing - Review & Editing1

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The title compound [systematic name: 4-(di­methyl­amino)­pyridine-4-meth­oxy­phenyl­borane (1/1)], C14H19BN2O, contains two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Both molecules exhibit coplanar, mostly sp 2-hybridized meth­oxy and di­methyl­amino substituents on their respective aromatic rings, consistent with π-donation into the aromatic systems. The B?H groups exhibit an intra­molecular close contact with a C?H group of the pyridine ring, which may be evidence of electrostatic attraction between the hydridic B?H and the electropositive aromatic C?H. There appears to be weak C?H?π(arene) inter­actions between two of the H atoms of an amino­methyl group and the meth­oxy-substituted benzene ring of the other independent mol­ecule, and another C?H?π (arene) inter­action between one of the pyridine ring H atoms and the same benzene ring.


crystal structure, hydrogen bonding, zwitterions, Hirshfield analysis


Crystal structure and Hirshfield analysis of the 4-(di­methyl­amino)­pyridine adduct of 4-meth­oxy­phenyl­borane


Jesse Shooter,a Caleb J. Allen,a Colby W. K. Tinsley,a Lev N. Zakharov,b and Eric R. Abbeya,*

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2017 Nov 1;