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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:2818-66-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Previously, we found that genetically diverse rhizobia nodulating Lotus corniculatus at a field site devoid of naturalized rhizobia had symbiotic DNA regions identical to those of ICMP3153, the inoculant strain used at the site (J. T. Sullivan, H. N. Patrick, W. L. Lowther, D. B. Scott, and C. W. Ronson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:8985-8989, 1995). In this study, we characterized seven nonsymbiotic rhizobial isolates from the rhizosphere of L. corniculatus. These included two from plants at the field site sampled by Sullivan et al. and five from plants at a new field plot adjacent to that site. The isolates did not nodulate Lotus species or hybridize to symbiotic gene probes but did hybridize to genomic DNA probes from Rhizobium loti. Their genetic relationships with symbiotic isolates obtained from the same sites, with inoculant strain ICMP3153, and with R. loti NZP2213T were determined by three methods. Genetic distance estimates based on genomic DNA-DNA hybridization and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were correlated but were not consistently reflected by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence divergence. The nonsymbiotic isolates represented four genomic species that were related to R. loti; the diverse symbiotic isolates from the site belonged to one of these species. The inoculant strain ICMP3153 belonged to a fifth genomic species that was more closely related to Rhizobium huakuii. These results support the proposal that nonsymbiotic rhizobia persist in soils in the absence of legumes and acquire symbiotic genes from inoculant strains upon introduction of host legumes.
Four unnamed species of nonsymbiotic rhizobia isolated from the rhizosphere of Lotus corniculatus.
J T Sullivan, B D Eardly, P van Berkum, and C W Ronson
The colonization of mucosal surfaces by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can lead to local or disseminated disease. Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) has been assumed to be responsible for preventing mucosal colonization by interfering with the binding of bacterial ligands to epithelial surface receptors. However, the efficacy of this mechanism of immunity derives little actual support from in vivo experiments. In an investigation of the role of local and systemic immunization strategies in reducing colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of mice by P. aeruginosa, the bacterial antigens that were potential targets for immune effectors promoting mucosal clearance were identified. Levels of gastrointestinal colonization were reduced when immunity to homologous O antigens, but not that to pili or flagella, was elicited. Oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing P. aeruginosa serogroup O11 antigen elicited mucosal and serum IgA antibodies and serum IgG antibodies specific for the recombinant antigen. Oral challenge of immunized mice with P. aeruginosa serogroup O11 demonstrated protection against gastrointestinal colonization. Intraperitoneal immunization with a serogroup O11 high-molecular-weight O-polysaccharide antigen elicited only serum IgG and IgM antibodies yet was as effective as oral vaccination in protecting mice against gastrointestinal colonization. This finding was confirmed by the demonstration that intraperitoneal immunization with purified lipopolysaccharide was also protective against mucosal surface colonization. These results call into question the need for local immune effectors, particularly secretory IgA, directed at bacterial ligands for epithelial surface components, in protecting a mucosal surface from bacterial challenge.
Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the murine gastrointestinal tract is effectively mediated by O-antigen-specific circulating antibodies.
G B Pier, G Meluleni, and J B Goldberg
DNA polymerase (deoxynucleosidetriphosphate: DNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 188.8.131.52 or DNA nucleotidyltransferase) activity, isolated from late and early passage cells of the diploid human fibroblast line, MRC-5, was compared. The level of activity dropped with increasing passage. In addition, when the fidelity of polymerization was monitored with four synthetic templates under a variety of conditions, it was observed that the enzyme from late passage cells was more error-prone. The possible relation of these observations to “senescence” of the fibroblasts is discussed.
Decreased fidelity of DNA polymerase activity isolated from aging human fibroblasts.
S Linn, M Kairis, and R Holliday