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To determine the characteristics of maternal varicella at our institution, we reviewed all cases of primary varicella in pregnancy. Using a perinatal database that summarizes all obstetric admissions, we reviewed the medical records of women with varicella infections during pregnancy. Over a 5 1/2-year period, 31 pregnancies were affected by varicella infection among 11,753 deliveries. The mean age of those patients was 19.6 years, significantly different from our overall population of 25.3 years (P < .05). The racial composition of 35% Hispanic, 35% white, and 29% African American was different from that of our general population of 55% white, 38% African American, and 6% Hispanic (P = .023). The mean gestational age of the eruption of vesicles was 25 weeks. Of the 31 women, 7 had preterm labor within a week of their varicella, 3 delivered prematurely, and 3 infants had a birth weight of less than 2,700 grams. Respiratory symptoms developed in 6 women, and pneumonia developed in 4, 2 of whom required ventilatory support, 1 for 5 days, the other for 49 days. Eight women received acyclovir during gestation, and none suffered sequelae. In all, 6 infants had lesions and anomalies noted at birth, 5 possibly associated with varicella. Varicella infection is associated with a greater-than-expected level of both maternal and fetal morbidity. The fetal disease may occur due to maternal infection at any gestation and is most likely a spectrum of complications. The maternal disease appears to be worse in the latter half of pregnancy. Programs of prevention through vaccination must account for a possibly decreased level of immunity in different populations.
Varicella during pregnancy. Maternal and fetal effects
V L Katz, J A Kuller, M J McMahon, M A Warren, and S R Wells
Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in total and anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific cervical IgA and IgG antibody profiles during and after pregnancy.
Methods: Serum and cervical secretions were obtained from pregnant patients before 20 weeks gestation, at 34-36 weeks gestation, and at 6 weeks postpartum and tested for total IgA and IgG antibody and for IgA and IgG to HSV proteins by Western blot.
Results: Seven women were HSV seronegative, 14 HSV-1 seropositive, and 14 HSV-2 ± HSV-1 seropositive. Minimal changes in the serum anti-HSV profiles were seen over the 3 visits. The total cervical IgA, IgG, and protein levels did not change between the 2 pregnancy visits but tended to increase at the postpartum visit. No consistent change in cervical HSV-specific IgA and IgG was seen during pregnancy, but the levels increased markedly at the postpartum visit.
Conclusions: Lower cervical anti-HSV antibody levels may be related to the previously reported increased frequency of a reactivation of HSV during late pregnancy. Further evaluation is necessary to confirm and quantify the changes in genital immunity during pregnancy and to evaluate whether the increased levels at the postpartum visit are sustained.
Cervical Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins in Pregnancy and Puerperium: A Pilot Study
D. Heather Watts,corresponding author1 Jeanne-Marie Guise,1,5 Zane Brown,1 Lawrence Corey,2,3 and Rhoda L. Ashley2,4
Two series of bidentate polypyridine ligands, made of phenanthroline chelating subunits having substituted mono-and di-anthracenyl groups, and 1-methoxy-1-buten-3-yne at the 4 and 7-positions with the corresponding heteroleptic Ru(II) complex have been synthesized and characterized. The complex is formulated as [(Ru(L1)(L2)(NCS)2)], (where L1 = 4-(9-dianthracenyl-10-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-7-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline and L2 = 4,7-bis(1-methoxy-1-buten-3-yne)-1,10-phenanthroline). The Ru(II) complex shows characteristic broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands absorption and appreciable photoluminescence spanning the visible region. The ligands and complex were characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy, UV-Vis, photoluminescence and elemental analysis (see in supplementary materials). The anchoring groups in both ligands have allowed an extended delocalization of acceptor orbital of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state.
Ru(II) complex, phenanthroline, extended π-bond conjugation, spectroscopy, molar extinction coefficient
Synthesis and Characterization of a Ru(II) Complex with Functionalized Phenanthroline Ligands Having Single-Double Linked Anthracenyl and 1-Methoxy-1-buten-3-yne Moieties
Adewale O. Adeloye and Peter A. Ajibade*