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HIV testing, Children, Adolescents, Entry points, MTCT, Cameroon
Feasibility and utility of active case finding of HIV-infected children and adolescents by provider-initiated testing and counselling: evidence from the Laquintinie hospital in Douala, Cameroon
Calixte Ida Penda,corresponding author1,2 Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko,2 Daniele Kedy Koum,1 Joseph Fokam,3,4 Cedric Anatole Zambo Meyong,2 Sandrine Talla,5 and Paul Koki Ndombo4,6
The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity of PTSD in a sample of refugee children from the Middle East – more specifically, to assess whether associations between traumatic events and specific PTSD symptoms were more outspoken than (1) the associations of PTSD symptoms with non‐traumatic exposures, and (2) the associations of violent exposures with symptoms other than PTSD‐symptoms. Parents of 311 refugee children from the Middle East were interviewed concerning their children’s traumatic experiences and mental health symptoms. The specific PTSD symptoms did not cluster in a factor analysis. The PTSD symptom complex was significantly predicted not only by violent exposures (mother tortured, OR 8.2, p < 0.005; father disappeared OR 3.2, p < 0.05) but also by indicators of family interaction and parents’ occupational situation. The two identified violent exposures had significant independent associations with a series of symptoms including symptoms other than those of PTSD (rs ranging from 0.25 to 0.44, p < 0.001). Thus it does not seem sufficient to focus solely on PTSD symptomatology when assessing the mental health needs of refugee children. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PTSD, violence, torture, refugee, child, validity
Validity of PTSD in a sample of refugee children: can a separate diagnostic entity be justified?
Edith Montgomerycorresponding author 1 and Anders Foldspang 2
To evaluate the reproducibility of indices of lung microstructure and function derived from 129Xe chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) spectroscopy in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to study the sensitivity of CSSR‐derived parameters to pulse sequence design and lung inflation level.
Preliminary data were collected from five volunteers on three occasions, using two implementations of the CSSR sequence. Separately, three volunteers each underwent CSSR at three different lung inflation levels. After analysis of these preliminary data, five COPD patients were scanned on three separate days, and nine age‐matched volunteers were scanned three times on one day, to assess reproducibility.
CSSR‐derived alveolar septal thickness (ST) and surface‐area‐to‐volume (S/V) ratio values decreased with lung inflation level (P < 0.001; P = 0.057, respectively). Intra‐subject standard deviations of ST were lower than the previously measured differences between volunteers and subjects with interstitial lung disease. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) values of ST were 3.9 ± 1.9% and 6.0 ± 4.5% in volunteers and COPD patients, respectively, similar to CV values for whole‐lung carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. The mean CV of S/V in volunteers and patients was 14.1 ± 8.0% and 18.0 ± 19.3%, respectively.
129Xe CSSR presents a reproducible method for estimation of alveolar septal thickness. Magn Reson Med 77:2107-2113, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
hyperpolarized xenon‐129, lung function, chemical shift, reproducibility
Reproducibility of quantitative indices of lung function and microstructure from 129Xe chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) MR spectroscopy
Neil J. Stewart, 1 Felix C. Horn, 1 Graham Norquay, 1 Guilhem J. Collier, 1 Denise P. Yates, 2 Rod Lawson, 3 Helen Marshall, 1 and Jim M. Wildcorresponding author 1