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A new and compact sensor based on the complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) structure is proposed to characterize the relative permittivity of various dielectric materials, enabling the determination of soil water content (SWC). The proposed sensor consists of a circular microstrip patch antenna supporting a 3D-printed small cylindrical container made out of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) filament. The principle of operation is based on the shifting of two of the antenna resonant frequencies caused by changing the relative permittivity of the material under test (MUT). Simulations are performed enabling the development of an empirical model of analysis. The sensitivity of the sensor is investigated and its effectiveness is analyzed by characterizing typical dielectric materials. The proposed sensor, which can be applied to characterize different types of dielectric materials, is used to determine the percentage of water contained in different soil types. Prototypes are fabricated and measured and the obtained results are compared with results from other research works, to validate the proposed sensor effectiveness. Moreover, the sensor was used to determine the percentage of water concentration in quartz sand and red clay samples.
soil water content, SWC, CSRR, microwave sensor, relative permittivity measurement, slotted circular patch antenna
CSRR-Based Microwave Sensor for Dielectric Materials Characterization Applied to Soil Water Content Determination
João G. D. Oliveira,1 Erica N. M. G. Pinto,2 Valdemir P. Silva Neto,1 and Adaildo G. D’Assuncão1,*
This review summarizes endeavors undertaken in the middle of last century to employ the Lamm equation for quantitative analysis of boundary spreading in sedimentation velocity experiments on globular proteins, thereby illustrating the ingenuity required to achieve that goal in an era when an approximate analytical solution of that nonlinear differential equation of second order provided the only means for its application. Application of procedures based on that approximate solution to simulated sedimentation velocity distributions has revealed a slight disparity (about 3%) between returned and input values of the diffusion coefficient—a discrepancy comparable with that of estimates obtained by current simulative analyses based on numerical solution of the Lamm equation. Although the massive technological developments in the gathering and treatment of sedimentation velocity data over the past three to four decades have changed dramatically the manner in which boundary spreading is analyzed, they have not led to any significant improvement in the accuracy of the diffusion coefficient thereby deduced.
Analytical centrifugation, Sedimentation velocity, Sedimentation coefficient, Concentration dependence, Boundary spreading, Diffusion coefficient
Allowance for boundary sharpening in the determination of diffusion coefficients by sedimentation velocity: a historical perspective
Donald J. Winzorcorresponding author1 and David J. Scott2,3
Antibodies against Escherichia coli 0141 and Escherichia coli 08 have been studied in porcine colostrum and serum using gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Immunoglobulins were assayed by radial immunodiffusion.
Immune inhibition studies with a rabbit anti-IgA-globulin serum showed that a high proportion of antibodies in colostrum measured by the antiglobulin haemagglutination test were associated with IgA. The IgA antibody could not be detected in sow serum where the antibody was almost entirely confined to IgM. Thus it appears that colostral IgA antibody was synthesized in the mammary gland.
Studies of the absorption of immunoglobulins and antibodies from colostrum in six litters of piglets showed that although IgA was absorbed from the colostrum, colostral IgA antibody to E. coli was not acquired as part of the passive immunity of the neonatal piglet.
The absorbed antibody was associated with IgM; another high molecular weight immunoglobulin 18S IgG was also absorbed.
It is suggested that structures on secretory IgA which correspond to cellular receptors for intestinal transmission may be blocked by the integration of secretory `piece’.
Porcine colostral IgA and IgM antibodies to Escherichia coli and their intestinal absorption by the neonatal piglet