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6″-O-Acetylsaikosaponin b3

$1,248

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BN-O0918

  • Specification : 98%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 104109-34-4

  • Formula : C45H74O15

  • Molecular Weight : 855.06

  • Volume : 5mg

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Catalogue Number

BN-O0918

Analysis Method

HPLC,NMR,MS

Specification

98%(HPLC)

Storage

2-8°C

Molecular Weight

855.06

Appearance

Botanical Source

Structure Type

Category

Standards;Natural Pytochemical;API

SMILES

Synonyms

IUPAC Name

Density

Solubility

Flash Point

Boiling Point

Melting Point

InChl

InChl Key

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

2933990000

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:104109-34-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

No Technical Documents Available For This Product.

PMID

29386879

Abstract

Purpose
To assess retinal function in combination with the retinal structure in ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations. Moreover, to evaluate the possibility of predicting the natural course of these disorders.

Methods
34 patients with Stargardt disease or cone rod dystrophy carrying confirmed mutations in ABCA4 were selected from our retinitis pigmentosa (RP) register. Sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the ABCA4 gene was performed. The patients were subdivided into three groups based on their most recent visual fields. Group 1 included ten patients with central scotomas within 10°, group 2 included 19 patients with larger central scotomas of 10-35°, and group 3 included five patients with mere temporal residues. The patients underwent slit-lamp and fundus examinations, visual acuity testing, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus photography (color, red-free, and autofluorescence (AF) images), full-field electroretinography (ffERG), and multifocal electroretinography (mERG). FfERG and mERG results were analyzed statistically. Total rod and cone function, as well as macular function, was compared between the three groups and of each group to a normal material. In 23 patients who had undergone ffERG on a previous occasion, the 30 Hz flicker implicit time (IT) from the first visit was also analyzed.

Results
The ffERG statistics revealed significant differences between the groups regarding cone and rod function with group 1 showing the highest amplitudes and the shortest ITs while group 3 demonstrated the lowest amplitudes and the most delayed ITs. When compared to controls, group 1 did not show any significant changes while groups 2 and 3 demonstrated reduced amplitudes and delayed 30 Hz ITs. Regarding estimation of the natural course, identical results of the 30 Hz IT were encountered for the groups also at the first visit early in the course of disease. Comparison of the mERGs showed significant differences with group 1 demonstrating the highest amplitudes and group 3 the lowest for all rings but rings 2 and 3 in the right eye for which the amplitudes were the second highest. The mERGs for each group were also compared to controls showing reduced mERG amplitudes for all rings in all groups, except group 1, left eye. OCT showed macular attenuation in all patients. Evaluation of the inner and outer photoreceptor junction (IS/OS) morphology revealed alterations related to macular function measured with mERG in all eyes. Eight patients in group 1 showed foveal IS/OS junction loss, one had foveal IS/OS junction disorganization, and one had IS/OS loss also beyond the fovea. In group 2, one patient had IS/OS junction loss confined to the fovea, and the rest showed total loss of IS/OS junctions. Group 3 was devoid of IS/OS junctions. Concerning the AF images, group 1 showed small areas of absent AF in the macula, peripapillary sparing, and flecks of increased and reduced AF in the posterior pole. In group 2, the central areas of absent AF were larger. Flecks of reduced AF were the most dominant and reached beyond the posterior pole. Seven of 19 patients had peripapillary sparing. In group 3, large confluent areas of reduced AF were found in the posterior pole and beyond with small areas of increased AF in the far periphery. No peripapillary sparing was seen.

Conclusions
The current study demonstrates a significant difference in total retinal function, as well as macular function, between patients with ABCA4-associated retinal degeneration and a different degree of visual field defects with gradual deterioration of function along with increased visual field constriction. Likewise, the morphological changes, including the deviant AF pattern and loss of IS/OS junctions, that were related to macular function measured with mERG worsened with the degree of visual field defects. Moreover, in these groups of patients with ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations, full-field cone 30 Hz flicker IT seems to be a predictor of the natural course of the disease also on long-term follow-up.

Title

Full-field ERG as a predictor of the natural course of ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations

Author

Marion Schroeder and Ulrika Kjellstromcorresponding author

Publish date

2018;

PMID

25144939

Abstract

Thousands of small Open Reading Frames (smORFs) with the potential to encode small peptides of fewer than 100 amino acids exist in our genomes. However, the number of smORFs actually translated, and their molecular and functional roles are still unclear. In this study, we present a genome-wide assessment of smORF translation by ribosomal profiling of polysomal fractions in Drosophila. We detect two types of smORFs bound by multiple ribosomes and thus undergoing productive translation. The ‘longer’ smORFs of around 80 amino acids resemble canonical proteins in translational metrics and conservation, and display a propensity to contain transmembrane motifs. The ‘dwarf’ smORFs are in general shorter (around 20 amino-acid long), are mostly found in 5′-UTRs and non-coding RNAs, are less well conserved, and have no bioinformatic indicators of peptide function. Our findings indicate that thousands of smORFs are translated in metazoan genomes, reinforcing the idea that smORFs are an abundant and fundamental genome component.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03528.001

Research organism: D. melanogaster

Title

Extensive translation of small Open Reading Frames revealed by Poly-Ribo-Seq

Author

Julie L Aspden, Ying Chen Eyre-Walker, Rose J Phillips, Unum Amin, Muhammad Ali S Mumtaz, Michele Brocard, and Juan-Pablo Couso*

Publish date

2014

PMID

9409844

Abstract

The sex of the haploid gametophyte of the fern Ceratopteris is determined by the presence or absence of the pheromone antheridiogen, which, when present, promotes male development and represses female development of the gametophyte. Several genes involved in sex determination in Ceratopteris have been identified by mutation. In this study, the epistatic interactions among new and previously described sex-determining mutants have been characterized. These results show that sex expression is regulated by two sets of genes defined by the FEM1 and TRA loci. Each promotes the expression of either male or female traits and simultaneously represses the expression of the other. A model describing how antheridiogen regulates the expression of these genes and the sex of the gametophyte is described. The observation that some gametophytic sex-determining mutants have phenotypic effects on the sporophyte plant indicates that sex determination in the Ceratopteris gametophyte is regulated by a mechanism that also regulates sporophyte development.

Title

The Transformer Genes of the Fern Ceratopteris Simultaneously Promote Meristem and Archegonia Development and Repress Antheridia Development in the Developing Gametophyte

Author

J. A. Banks

Publish date

1997 Dec;


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