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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:5318-27-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The relative contributions of four major cellulases of Trichoderma reesei (1,4-beta-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I], CBH II, endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase I [EG I], and EG II) to the generation of the cellulase inducer from cellulose were studied with isogenic strains in which the corresponding genes (cbh1, cbh2, egl1, and egl2) had been deleted by insertion of the Aspergillus nidulans amdS marker gene. During growth on lactose (a soluble carbon source provoking cellulase gene expression), these strains showed no significant alterations in their ability to express the respective other cellulase genes, with the exception of the strain containing delta cbh1, which exhibited an increased steady-state level of cbh2 mRNA. On crystalline cellulose as the only carbon source, however, significant differences were apparent: strains in which cbh2 and egl2, respectively, had been deleted showed no expression of the other cellulase genes, whereas strains carrying the cbh1 or egl1 deletion showed these transcripts. The delta cbh1-containing strain also showed enhanced cbh2 mRNA levels under these conditions. A strain in which both cbh1 and cbh2 had been deleted, however, was unable to initiate growth on cellulose. Addition of 2 mM sophorose, a putative inducer of cellulase gene expression, to such cultures induced the transcription of egl1 and egl2 and restored the ability to grow on cellulose. We conclude that CBH II and EG II are of major importance for the efficient formation of the inducer from cellulose in T. reesei and that removal of both cellobiohydrolases renders T. reesei unable to attack crystalline cellulose.
Role of four major cellulases in triggering of cellulase gene expression by cellulose in Trichoderma reesei.
B Seiboth, S Hakola, R L Mach, P L Suominen, and C P Kubicek
Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that the Ras protooncogene product regulates the activation of the Raf kinase pathway, leading to the proposal that Raf is a direct mitogenic effector of activated Ras. Here we report the use of a novel competition assay to measure in vitro the relative affinity of the c-Raf-1 regulatory region for Ras-GTP, Ras-GDP, and 10 oncogenic and effector mutant Ras proteins. c-Raf-1 associates with normal Ras and the oncogenic V12 and L61 forms of Ras with equal affinity. The moderately transforming mutant Ras[E30K31] also bound to the c-Raf-1 regulatory region with normal affinity. Transformation-defective Ras effector mutants Ras[N33], Ras[S35], and Ras[N38] bound poorly. In contrast, the transformation defective Ras[G26I27] and Ras[E45] mutants bound to the c-Raf-1 regulatory region with nearly wild-type affinity. A stable, high-affinity Ras-binding region of c-Raf-1 was mapped to a 99-amino-acid subfragment of the first 257 residues. The smallest Ras-binding region identified consisted of N-terminal residues 51 to 131, although stable expression of the domain and high-affinity binding were improved by the presence of residues 132 to 149. Deletion of the Raf zinc finger region did not reduce Ras-binding affinity, while removal of the first 50 amino acids greatly increased affinity. Phosphorylation of Raf[1-149] by protein kinase A on serine 43 resulted in significant inhibiton of Ras binding. demonstrating that the mechanism of cyclic AMP downregulation results through structural changes occurring exclusively in this small Ras-binding domain.
Critical binding and regulatory interactions between Ras and Raf occur through a small, stable N-terminal domain of Raf and specific Ras effector residues.
E Chuang, D Barnard, L Hettich, X F Zhang, J Avruch, and M S Marshall
The duplicated R and Sn genes regulate the maize anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and encode tissue-specific products that are homologous to helix-loop-helix transcriptional activators. As a consequence of their coupling in the genome, Sn is partially silenced. Genomic restriction analysis failed to reveal gross structural DNA alterations between the strong original phenotype and the weak derivatives. However, the differences in pigmentation were inversely correlated with differences in the methylation of the Sn promoter. Accordingly, treatment with 5-azacytidine (AZA), a demethylating agent, restored a strong pigmentation pattern that was transmitted to the progeny and that was correlated with differential expression of the Sn transcript. Genomic sequencing confirmed that methylation of the Sn promoter was more apparent in the less pigmented seedlings and was greatly reduced in the AZA revertants. In addition, some methylcytosines were located in non-symmetrical C sequences. These findings provide an insight into Sn and R interaction, a process that we have termed Reduced Expression of Endogenous Duplications (REED). We propose that increasing the copy number of regulatory genes by endogenous duplication leads to such epigenetic mechanisms of silencing. Further understanding of the REED process may have broader implications for gene regulation and may identify new levels of regulation within eukaryotic genomes.
The reduced expression of endogenous duplications (REED) in the maize R gene family is mediated by DNA methylation.
A Ronchi, K Petroni, and C Tonelli
1995 Nov 1;