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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:6298-37-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Anoctamin1 (ANO1), a calcium activated chloride channel, is known to play a critical role in salivary secretion. In the salivary gland, ANO1 is expressed exclusively in the acinar cells, with no expression in the ductal cells. However, the mechanisms that determine this distinctive cell type-dependent expression pattern of ANO1 remain unknown. In this study, we discovered that the cell-dependent expression of ANO1 during salivary gland organogenesis is regulated by DNA methylation of ANO1 CpG islands. ANO1 CpG islands in e12 embryonic submandibular glands (eSMG) are highly methylated, but those in e14 eSMG or adult SMG are significantly unmethylated. The differential expression pattern of ANO1 in duct and acini is defined at e14. Artificial demethylation by treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), induced the expression of ANO1 in both the ductal cell line Human Submandibular Gland (HSG) and in the duct cells of adult mouse SMG. During the trans-differentiation in Matrigel of duct-origin HSG cells into acinar-like phenotype, significant demethylation of ANO1 CpG islands is observed. This may be due to the reduced expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3a and 3b. These results suggest that the differential expression of ANO1 in salivary glands during organogenesis and differentiation is mainly regulated by epigenetic demethylation of the ANO1 gene.
Anoctamin1, salivary gland, organogenesis, epigenetic regulation, DNA methylation
Epigenetic Modification as a Regulatory Mechanism for Spatiotemporal Dynamics of ANO1 Expression in Salivary Glands
Yonghwan Shin,1,2,† Sang-Woo Lee,1,† Eun Namkoong,1 Woojin An,2 Jong-Ho Lee,3 Peter D Brown,4 and Kyungpyo Park1,*
Frozen shoulder: adhesive capsulitis
M I Jayson
1981 Oct 17;
Selection for chlorate resistance yields mol (formerly chl) mutants with defects in molybdenum cofactor synthesis. Complementation and genetic mapping analyses indicated that the Klebsiella pneumoniae mol genes are functionally homologous to those of Escherichia coli and occupy analogous genetic map positions. Hypoxanthine utilization in other organisms requires molybdenum cofactor as a component of xanthine dehydrogenase, and thus most chlorate-resistant mutants cannot use hypoxanthine as a sole source of nitrogen. Surprisingly, the K. pneumoniae mol mutants and the mol+ parent grew equally well with hypoxanthine as the sole nitrogen source, suggesting that K. pneumoniae has a molybdenum cofactor-independent pathway for hypoxanthine utilization.
Molybdenum cofactor (chlorate-resistant) mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al can use hypoxanthine as the sole nitrogen source.
A Garzon, J Li, A Flores, J Casadesus, and V Stewart