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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:84294-90-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
A key aberrant biological difference between tumor cells and normal differentiated cells is altered metabolism, whereby cancer cells acquire a number of stable genetic and epigenetic alterations to retain proliferation, survive under unfavorable microenvironments and invade into surrounding tissues. A classic biochemical adaptation is the metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, regardless of oxygen availability, a phenomenon termed the “Warburg Effect”. Aerobic glycolysis, characterized by high glucose uptake, low oxygen consumption and elevated production of lactate, is associated with a survival advantage as well as the generation of substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides necessary in rapidly proliferating cells. This review discusses the role of key metabolic enzymes and their association with aerobic glycolysis in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), an aggressive, highly glycolytic and deadly brain tumor. Targeting key metabolic enzymes involved in modulating the “Warburg Effect” may provide a novel therapeutic approach either singularly or in combination with existing therapies in GBMs.
Tumor Metabolism, Aerobic Glycolysis, Warburg Effect, Glioblastoma Multiforme
Targeting Metabolic Remodeling in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Amparo Wolf,1 Sameer Agnihotri,1 and Abhijit Guha1,2
The zinc(II) complex (C2H6NS)2Zn·ZnCl2 was synthesized with 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride and zinc sulfate heptahydrate as the raw materials in aqueous solution. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry. The crystal structure of the zinc(II) complex belongs to monoclinic system, space group P 21/n, with cell parameters of a = 0.84294(4), b = 0.83920(4), c = 1.65787(8) nm, Z = 2, and D = 2.041 g/cm3. In this paper, the interaction of complex with Ct-DNA was investigated by UV-visible and viscosimetric techniques. Upon addition of the complex, important changes were observed in the characteristic UV-Vis bands (hyperchromism) of calf thymus DNA and some changes in specific viscosity. The experimental results showed that the complex is bound to DNA intercalative (intercalation binding).
Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Spectroscopic Properties, and Interaction with Ct-DNA of Zn(II) with 2-Aminoethanethiol Hydrochloride Ligand
Xu-gang Shu, 1 , * Chun-li Wu, 1 Cui-jin Li, 1 Min Zhang, 2 Ke Wan, 2 and Xin Wu 3 ,
Approximately 2 % of the human genome is reported to be occupied by genes. Various forms of repetitive elements (REs), both characterized and uncharacterized, are presumed to make up the vast majority of the rest of the genomes of human and other species. In conjunction with a comprehensive annotation of genes, information regarding components of genome biology, such as gene polymorphisms, non-coding RNAs, and certain REs, are found in human genome databases. However, the genome-wide profile of unique RE arrangements formed by different groups of REs has not been fully characterized yet. In this study, the entire human genome was subjected to an unbiased RE survey to establish a whole-genome profile of REs and their arrangements. Due to the limitation in query size within the bl2seq alignment program (National Center for Biotechnology Information [NCBI]) utilized for the RE survey, the entire NCBI reference human genome was fragmented into 6,206 units of 0.5 M nucleotides. A number of RE arrangements with varying complexities and patterns were identified throughout the genome. Each chromosome had unique profiles of RE arrangements and density, and high levels of RE density were measured near the centromere regions. Subsequently, 175 complex RE arrangements, which were selected throughout the genome, were subjected to a comparison analysis using five different human genome sequences. Interestingly, three of the five human genome databases shared the exactly same arrangement patterns and sequences for all 175 RE arrangement regions (a total of 12,765,625 nucleotides). The findings from this study demonstrate that a substantial fraction of REs in the human genome are clustered into various forms of ordered structures. Further investigations are needed to examine whether some of these ordered RE arrangements contribute to the human pathobiology as a functional genome unit.
repetitive element, arrangement, density, human genome
Identification of a unique library of complex, but ordered, arrays of repetitive elements in the human genome and implication of their potential involvement in pathobiology
Kang-Hoon Lee,1,2 Young-Kwan Lee,1,2 Deug-Nam Kwon,1,2 Sophia Chiu,1 Victoria Chew,1 HyungChul Rah,2 Gregory Kujawski,1 Ramzi Melhem,1 Karen Hsu,1 Cecilia Chung,1 David G. Greenhalgh,1,2 and Kiho Cho1,2,*
2012 Jun 1.