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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:145134-61-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
While residual plasma viremia is commonly observed in HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment (ART), little is known about its subclinical consequences.
This cross-sectional study included 47 male, never-smoking, non-diabetic patients with ≥4 years of ART and controlled HIV-replication (HIV-viral load, VL <20 copies/mL for ≥1 year). Residual HIV-VL was measured using an ultrasensitive assay (quantification limit: 1 copy/ml). Patients were categorized as having detectable (D; 1-20 copies/mL, n = 14) or undetectable (UD; <1 copies/mL, n = 33) HIV-VL. Linear regression was used to model the difference in total carotid intima-media thickness [c-IMT, measures averaged across common carotid artery (cca), bifurcation, and internal carotid artery] and cca-IMT alone across detection groups. Multivariable models were constructed for each endpoint in a forward-stepwise approach. Results No significant differences were observed between viremia groups with respect to median ART-duration (9.6 years, IQR = 6.8-10.9), nadir CD4+T-cell (208/mm3, IQR = 143-378), and CD4+T-cell count (555/mm3, IQR = 458-707). Median adjusted inflammatory markers tended to be higher in patients with D- than UD-viremia, with differences in IL-10 being significant (p = 0.03). After adjustment on age, systolic blood pressure, and insulin resistance, mean cca-IMT was significantly lower in patients with undetectable (0.668 mm±0.010) versus detectable viremia (0.727 mm±0.015, p = 0.002). Cca-IMT was also independently associated with age and insulin resistance. Mean adjusted total c-IMT was no different between viremia groups (p = 0.2), however there was large variability in bifurcation c-IMT measurements. Conclusions Higher cca-IMT was observed in patients with detectable, compared to undetectable, HIV-VL in never-smoking ART-controlled patients, suggesting that residual HIV viremia may be linked to atherosclerosis.
Association of Residual Plasma Viremia and Intima-Media Thickness in Antiretroviral-Treated Patients with Controlled Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Anders Boyd, 1 , * Jean-Luc Meynard, 2 , 3 Laurence Morand-Joubert, 4 Adrien Michon, 5 Franck Boccara, 2 , 6 , 7 Jean-Philippe Bastard, 2 , 8 Assia Samri, 2 , 9 Nabila Haddour, 2 , 6 Ziad Mallat, 10 , 11 Jacqueline Capeau, 2 , 8 Moïse Desvarieux, 12 , 13 Pierre-Marie Girard, 1 , 2 , 3 and for the Collaboration in HIV, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Study Cristian Apetrei, Editor
Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCO) are non-heme iron enzymes that catalyze oxidative cleavage of alkene bonds in carotenoid and stilbenoid substrates. Previously, we showed that the iron cofactor of CAO1, a resveratrol-cleaving member of this family, can be substituted with cobalt to yield a catalytically inert enzyme useful for trapping active site-bound stilbenoid substrates for structural characterization. Metal substitution may provide a general method for identifying the natural substrates for CCOs in addition to facilitating structural and biophysical characterization of CCO-carotenoid complexes under normal aerobic conditions. Here, we demonstrate the general applicability of cobalt substitution in a prototypical carotenoid cleaving CCO, apocarotenoid oxygenase (ACO) from Synechocystis. Among the non-native divalent metals investigated, cobalt was uniquely able to stably occupy the ACO metal binding site and inhibit catalysis. Analysis by X-ray crystallography and X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the Co(II) forms of both ACO and CAO1 exhibit a close structural correspondence to the native Fe(II) enzyme forms. Hence, cobalt substitution is an effective strategy for generating catalytically inert but structurally intact forms of CCOs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1007/s00775-018-1586-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Non-heme iron enzyme, Cobalt substitution, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Crystal structure
Preparation and characterization of metal-substituted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases
Xuewu Sui,1,6 Erik R. Farquhar,2,3 Hannah E. Hill,1 Johannes von Lintig,1 Wuxian Shi,2,3 and Philip D. Kisercorresponding author1,4,5