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In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection. We compared this treatment with another group that watched a life history video about the fish. The participants were 135 students studying to become biology teachers. Seventy received the treatment with the dissection video, and 65 viewed the life history video. We applied a pre/posttest treatment-comparison design and used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory for State (STAI-S), and a self-efficacy measure three times: before the lesson (pretest), after the film treatment (posttest 1), and after the dissection (posttest 2). The dissection film group scored higher in PA, NA, and state anxiety (STAI-S) after the dissection video treatment and higher in self-efficacy after the dissection. The life history group showed no differences between the pretest and posttest 1. The dissection film has clear benefits—increasing PA and self-efficacy—that come at the cost of higher NA and higher STAI-S.
Influence of a Dissection Video Clip on Anxiety, Affect, and Self-Efficacy in Educational Dissection: A Treatment Study
Christoph Randler,*,a Eda Demirhan,† Peter Wust-Ackermann,* and Inga H. Desch* Eric Chudler, Monitoring Editor
This study was designed to assess the clinical impact of medication reconciliation using two criteria: the number of inpatients who had experienced at least one medication error; the severity of the potential harm associated with these detected errors.
The study was a prospective observational one. The eligible population included patients aged 65 and over subjected to medication reconciliation at admission. The potential severity of medication errors was evaluated independently by the physician in charge of the patient and by the pharmacist involved in the medication reconciliation process. Severity assessment took account of the drug(s) involved in the error, the type of medication error, and the patient’s clinical and biological data.
From January 2011 to September 2012, 1799 medication errors were recorded among the 1670 patients subjected to medication reconciliation who were hospitalised from the emergency department. At least one medication error occurred for 744 (44.6%) of these patients. There were 87 medication errors associated with potentially major severity (5.6%). These concerned 67 patients (4.2%). The most prevalent error was omission. Cardiovascular and anticoagulant drugs were the drugs most frequently involved in these serious medication errors. Arrhythmia, haemorrhage, thrombosis, hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia were identified as the most likely harms that could have occurred.
The detection of cases of serious potential harm shows the clinical impact of medication reconciliation. It would be interesting to perform a multicentred assessment using indicators such as the number of inpatients experiencing at least one serious medication error. This could help to promote medication reconciliation as essential for patient safety.
CLINICAL PHARMACY, CARDIOLOGY, DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, GERIATRIC MEDICINE
The clinical impact of medication reconciliation on admission to a French hospital: a prospective observational study
Edith Dufay,1 Sophie Morice,2 Alexandre Dony,1 Thomas Baum,3 Sebastien Doerper,1 Alain Rauss,4 and David Piney1
Purpose. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between mastoid air cell volumes and graft success after tympanoplasty. Material and Methods. This study was performed retrospectively with patients undergoing type I tympanoplasty and antrostomy. A total of 57 patients (20-35.09% female and 37-64.91% male) with a mean age of 29.69 ± SD (range 12-56 years) were included in the study. The patients were invited for a control at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months, and otoscopic examinations and audiometric tests were performed. The temporal bone computed tomography images were screened with the 4800 Dpi optic resolution scanner and transferred to the computer environment in JPG format in order to calculate the mastoid air cell volume, and the volumes were calculated using the Autocad 2007 program. Results. Although, the graft success was determined to be better in the well-ventilated group, no significant difference could be found between the groups in terms of graft success at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months (P > 0.05). No statistically significant difference could be found between the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperative hearing gains (P > 0.05).
Effect of Preoperative Mastoid Ventilation on Tympanoplasty Success
Mehmet Metin, 1 Zeynep Kizilkaya Kaptan, 2 Sedat Dogan, 3 ,* Hasmet Yazici, 4 Cem Bayraktar, 3 Hakan Gocmen, 2 and Etem Erdal Samim 2