HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
In 2009, an outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on an open farm infected 93 persons, and approximately 22% of these individuals developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Genome sequencing was used to investigate outbreak-derived animal and human EHEC isolates. Phylogeny based on the whole-genome sequence was used to place outbreak isolates in the context of the overall E. coli species and the O157:H7 sequence type 11 (ST11) subgroup. Four informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and used to design an assay to type 122 other outbreak isolates. The SNP phylogeny demonstrated that the outbreak strain was from a lineage distinct from previously reported O157:H7 ST11 EHEC and was not a member of the hypervirulent clade 8. The strain harbored determinants for two Stx2 verotoxins and other putative virulence factors. When linked to the epidemiological information, the sequence data indicate that gross contamination of a single outbreak strain occurred across the farm prior to the first clinical report of HUS. The most likely explanation for these results is that a single successful strain of EHEC spread from a single introduction through the farm by clonal expansion and that contamination of the environment (including the possible colonization of several animals) led ultimately to human cases.
Public Health Value of Next-Generation DNA Sequencing of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Isolates from an Outbreak
Anthony P. Underwood,corresponding authora Tim Dallman,a Nicholas R. Thomson,b Michaela Williams,a Katy Harker,a Neil Perry,a Bob Adak,a Geraldine Willshaw,a Tom Cheasty,a Jonathan Green,a Gordon Dougan,b Julian Parkhill,b and John Waina,*
Factors associated with vasovagal reactions in apheresis plasma and whole blood donors: a statistical-epidemiological study in a European donor cohort
Jansen N. Seheult,1 Merete Eis Lund,2 Mark H. Yazer,1,2,3 and Kjell Titlestadcorresponding author2
Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) is a rare but serious outcome of vaginal birth. Based on concerns about the increasing number of women who commence childbearing later than previous generation, this study aimed at investigating age-related risk of OASI in women of different parity.
A population-based register study including 959,559 live singleton vaginal births recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1999 to 2011. In each parity group risks of OASI at age 25-29 years, 30-34 years, and ≥35 years compared with age < 25 years were investigated by logistic regression analyses, adjusted for year of birth, education, region of birth, smoking, Body Mass Index, infant birthweight and fetal presentation; and in parous women, history of OASI and cesarean section. Additional analyses also adjusted for mediating factors, such as epidural analgesia, episiotomy, and instrumental delivery, and maternal age-related morbidity. Results Rates of OASI were 6.6%, 2.3% and 0.9% in first, second and third births respectively. Age-related risk increased from 25-29 years in first births (Adjusted OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.59-1.72) and second births (Adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.58-2.01), and from 30-34 years in third births (Adjusted OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.00-2.56). In all parity groups the risk was doubled at age ≥ 35 years, compared with the respective reference group of women under 25 years. Adding mediating factors and maternal age-related morbidity only marginally reduced these risk estimates. Conclusion Maternal age is an independent risk factor for OASI in first, second and third births. Although age-related risks by parity are relatively similar, more nulliparous than parous women will be exposed to OASI due to the higher baseline rate. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12884-017-1473-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Obstetric anal sphincter injury, OASI, Maternal age, Parity
Risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury increases with maternal age irrespective of parity: a population-based register study
Ulla Waldenstromcorresponding author1,2 and Cecilia Ekeus1