HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:189689-31-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Standard fear extinction relies on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to form a new memory given the omission of threat. Using fMRI in humans, we investigated whether replacing threat with novel neutral outcomes (instead of just omitting threat) facilitates extinction by engaging the vmPFC more effectively than standard extinction. Computational modeling of associability (indexing surprise strength and dynamically modulating learning rates) characterized skin conductance responses and vmPFC activity during novelty-facilitated but not standard extinction. Subjects who showed faster within-session updating of associability during novelty-facilitated extinction also expressed better extinction retention the next day, as expressed through skin conductance responses. Finally, separable patterns of connectivity between the amygdala and ventral versus dorsal mPFC characterized retrieval of novelty-facilitated versus standard extinction memories, respectively. These results indicate that replacing threat with novel outcomes stimulates vmPFC involvement on extinction trials, leading to a more durable long-term extinction memory.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Psychiatric disorders characterized be excessive fear are a major public health concern. Popular clinical treatments, such as exposure therapy, are informed by principles of Pavlovian extinction. Thus, there is motivation to optimize extinction strategies in the laboratory so as to ultimately develop more effective clinical treatments. Here, we used functional neuroimaging in humans and found that replacing (rather than just omitting) expected aversive events with novel and neutral outcomes engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during extinction learning. Enhanced extinction also diminished activity in threat-related networks (e.g., the insula, thalamus) during immediate extinction and a 24 h extinction retention test. This is new evidence for how behavioral protocols designed to enhance extinction affects neurocircuitry underlying the learning and retention of extinction memories.
extinction, fMRI, inhibitory learning, Pavlovian conditioning, ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Role of Human Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Learning and Recall of Enhanced Extinction
Joseph E. Dunsmoor,corresponding author1 Marijn C.W. Kroes,2 Jian Li,3 Nathaniel D. Daw,4 Helen B. Simpson,5,6 and Elizabeth A. Phelps7
2019 Apr 24
As part of the effort to sequence the genome of Rattus norvegicus, we constructed a physical map comprised of fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-230 BAC library. These BAC clones provide ∼13-fold redundant coverage of the genome and have been assembled into 376 fingerprint contigs. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) map was also constructed and aligned with the BAC map via fingerprinted BAC and P1 artificial chromosome clones (PACs) sharing interspersed repetitive sequence markers with the YAC-based physical map. We have annotated 95% of the fingerprint map clones in contigs with coordinates on the version 3.1 rat genome sequence assembly, using BAC-end sequences and in silico mapping methods. These coordinates have allowed anchoring 358 of the 376 fingerprint map contigs onto the sequence assembly. Of these, 324 contigs are anchored to rat genome sequences localized to chromosomes, and 34 contigs are anchored to unlocalized portions of the rat sequence assembly. The remaining 18 contigs, containing 54 clones, still require placement. The fingerprint map is a high-resolution integrative data resource that provides genome-ordered associations among BAC, YAC, and PAC clones and the assembled sequence of the rat genome.
Integrated and Sequence-Ordered BAC- and YAC-Based Physical Maps for the Rat Genome
Martin Krzywinski,1 John Wallis,2 Claudia Gosele,3,4 Ian Bosdet,1 Readman Chiu,1 Tina Graves,2 Oliver Hummel,3 Dan Layman,2 Carrie Mathewson,1 Natasja Wye,1 Baoli Zhu,5 Derek Albracht,2 Jennifer Asano,1 Sarah Barber,1 Mabel Brown-John,1 Susanna Chan,1 Steve Chand,1 Alison Cloutier,1 Jonathon Davito,2 Chris Fjell,1 Tony Gaige,2 Detlev Ganten,3 Noreen Girn,1 Kurtis Guggenheimer,6 Heinz Himmelbauer,4 Thomas Kreitler,3,4 Stephen Leach,1 Darlene Lee,1 Hans Lehrach,4 Michael Mayo,1 Kelly Mead,2 Teika Olson,1 Pawan Pandoh,1 Anna-Liisa Prabhu,1 Heesun Shin,1 Simone Tanzer,7 Jason Thompson,6 Miranda Tsai,1 Jason Walker,2 George Yang,1 Mandeep Sekhon,2 LaDeana Hillier,2 Heike Zimdahl,3,4 Andre Marziali,6 Kazutoyo Osoegawa,5 Shaying Zhao,8 Asim Siddiqui,1 Pieter J. de Jong,5 Wes Warren,2 Elaine Mardis,2 John D. McPherson,2 Richard Wilson,2 Norbert Hubner,3 Steven Jones,1 Marco Marra,1 and Jacqueline Schein1,9