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The technical genesis and practice of 8-aminoquinoline therapy of latent malaria offer singular scientific, clinical, and public health insights. The 8-aminoquinolines brought revolutionary scientific discoveries, dogmatic practices, benign neglect, and, finally, enduring promise against endemic malaria. The clinical use of plasmochin-the first rationally synthesized blood schizontocide and the first gametocytocide, tissue schizontocide, and hypnozoitocide of any kind-commenced in 1926. Plasmochin became known to sometimes provoke fatal hemolytic crises. World War II delivered a newer 8-aminoquinoline, primaquine, and the discovery of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency as the basis of its hemolytic toxicity came in 1956. Primaquine nonetheless became the sole therapeutic option against latent malaria. After 40 years of fitful development, in 2018 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration registered the 8-aminoquinoline called tafenoquine for the prevention of all malarias and the treatment of those that relapse. Tafenoquine also cannot be used in G6PD-unknown or -deficient patients. The hemolytic toxicity of the 8-aminoquinolines impedes their great potential, but this problem has not been a research priority. This review explores the complex technical dimensions of the history of 8-aminoquinolines. The therapeutic principles thus examined may be leveraged in improved practice and in understanding the bright prospect of discovery of newer drugs that cannot harm G6PD-deficient patients.
8-aminoquinolines; CYP2D6; G6PD deficiency; Plasmodium vivax; hemolytic toxicity; latency; plasmochin; primaquine; tafenoquine; therapy.
8-Aminoquinoline Therapy for Latent Malaria
J Kevin Baird 1 2
2019 Jul 31
Tafenoquine is a novel 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the radical cure of acute Plasmodium vivax malaria, which is the first new treatment in almost 60 years. A population pharmacokinetic (POP PK) analysis was conducted with tafenoquine exposure data obtained following oral administration from 6 clinical studies in phase 1 through phase 3 with a nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach. The impacts of patient demographics, baseline characteristics, and extrinsic factors, such as formulation, were evaluated. Model performance was assessed using techniques such as bootstrapping, visual predictive checks, and external data validation from a phase 3 study not used in model fitting and parameter estimation. Based on the analysis, the systemic pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine were adequately described using a two-compartment model. The final POP PK model included body weight (allometric scaling) on apparent oral and intercompartmental clearance (CL/F and Q/F, respectively), apparent volume of distribution for central and peripheral compartments (V 2/F and V 3/F, respectively), formulation on systemic bioavailability (F1) and absorption rate constant (Ka ), and health status on apparent volume of distribution. The key tafenoquine population parameter estimates were 2.96 liters/h for CL/F and 915 liters for V 2/F in P. vivax-infected subjects. Additionally, the analyses demonstrated no clinically relevant difference in relative bioavailability across the capsule and tablet formulations administered in these clinical studies. In conclusion, a POP PK model for tafenoquine was developed. Clinical trial simulations based on this model supported bridging the exposures across two different formulations. This POP PK model can be applied to aid and perform clinical trial simulations in other scenarios and populations, such as pediatric populations.
8-aminoquinoline; antimalarial; population pharmacokinetics; tafenoquine.
Population Pharmacokinetics of Tafenoquine, a Novel Antimalarial
Nilay Thakkar 1, Justin A Green 2, Gavin C K W Koh 2, Stephan Duparc 3, David Tenero 1, Navin Goyal 4
2018 Oct 24
Primaquine (PQ) is an essential antimalarial drug but despite being developed over 70 years ago, its mode of action is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that hydroxylated-PQ metabolites (OH-PQm) are responsible for efficacy against liver and sexual transmission stages of Plasmodium falciparum. The antimalarial activity of PQ against liver stages depends on host CYP2D6 status, whilst OH-PQm display direct, CYP2D6-independent, activity. PQ requires hepatic metabolism to exert activity against gametocyte stages. OH-PQm exert modest antimalarial efficacy against parasite gametocytes; however, potency is enhanced ca.1000 fold in the presence of cytochrome P450 NADPH:oxidoreductase (CPR) from the liver and bone marrow. Enhancement of OH-PQm efficacy is due to the direct reduction of quinoneimine metabolites by CPR with the concomitant and excessive generation of H2O2, leading to parasite killing. This detailed understanding of the mechanism paves the way to rationally re-designed 8-aminoquinolines with improved pharmacological profiles.
Antimalarial Activity of Primaquine Operates via a Two-Step Biochemical Relay
Grazia Camarda 1, Piyaporn Jirawatcharadech 1, Richard S Priestley 1 2, Ahmed Saif 1 3, Sandra March 4, Michael H L Wong 5, Suet Leung 5, Alex B Miller 4, David A Baker 6, Pietro Alano 7, Mark J I Paine 8, Sangeeta N Bhatia 4, Paul M O'Neill 5, Stephen A Ward 1, Giancarlo A Biagini 9
2019 Jul 19