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  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BD-P0293

  • Specification : 99.0%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 1000415-56-4

  • Formula : C21H22O9

  • Molecular Weight : 418.398

  • PUBCHEM ID : 134715240

  • Volume : 25mg

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Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.

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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:1000415-56-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

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Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics.

Methods and Findings
We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq’s governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child “Dirty War Index” (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air attacks (DWI  = 69). Coalition forces had higher Woman and Child DWIs than Anti-Coalition forces, with no evidence of decrease over 2003-2008, for all weapons combined and for small arms gunfire, specifically.

Most Iraqi civilian violent deaths during 2003-2008 of the Iraq war were inflicted by Unknown perpetrators, primarily through extrajudicial executions that disproportionately increased in regions with greater numbers of violent deaths. Unknown perpetrators using suicide bombs, vehicle bombs, and mortars had highly lethal and indiscriminate effects on the Iraqi civilians they targeted. Deaths caused by Coalition forces of Iraqi civilians, women, and children peaked during the invasion period, with relatively indiscriminate effects from aerial weapons.

Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary


Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003-2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Locatio


Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks, 1 , 2 , * Hamit Dardagan, 2 Gabriela Guerrero Serdan, 3 , 4 ¤¶ Peter M. Bagnall, 2 John A. Sloboda, 2 , 3 and Michael Spagat 3

Publish date

2011 Feb




Knowledge of the Free Energy Landscape topology is the essential key to understanding many biochemical processes. The determination of the conformers of a protein and their basins of attraction takes a central role for studying molecular isomerization reactions. In this work, we present a novel framework to unveil the features of a Free Energy Landscape answering questions such as how many meta-stable conformers there are, what the hierarchical relationship among them is, or what the structure and kinetics of the transition paths are. Exploring the landscape by molecular dynamics simulations, the microscopic data of the trajectory are encoded into a Conformational Markov Network. The structure of this graph reveals the regions of the conformational space corresponding to the basins of attraction. In addition, handling the Conformational Markov Network, relevant kinetic magnitudes as dwell times and rate constants, or hierarchical relationships among basins, completes the global picture of the landscape. We show the power of the analysis studying a toy model of a funnel-like potential and computing efficiently the conformers of a short peptide, dialanine, paving the way to a systematic study of the Free Energy Landscape in large peptides.


Exploring the Free Energy Landscape: From Dynamics to Networks and Back


Diego Prada-Gracia, 1 , 2 Jesús Gomez-GardeNes, 2 , 3 Pablo Echenique, 2 , 4 and Fernando Falo 1 , 2 , *

Publish date

2009 Jun;




Under neutral conditions the reactions between 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole and cyano-substituted benzaldehyde derivatives yield stable hemiaminals. Addition of small amounts of acid catalyst promotes further step of dehydration resulting in formation of Schiff bases. Four new hemiaminals and the corresponding imines have been obtained. The molecular stability of the hemiaminal intermediates results from both the 1,2,4-triazole moiety and electron withdrawing substituents on the phenyl ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess stereogenic centres on carbon and nitrogen atoms. The chirality of these centres is strongly correlated with the conformation of the molecules due to heteroatom hyperconjugation effects.


stable hemiaminal, stable intermediate, heteroatom hyperconjugation, crystal structure, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole, formylbenzonitrile


Stable Hemiaminals with a Cyano Group and a Triazole Ring


Anna Kwiecień,* Maciej Barys, and Zbigniew Ciunik

Publish date

2014 Aug;