This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Gossypium spp
ABA/2,4-Pentadienoic acid, 5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-, (2Z,4E)-/cis-trans-(+)-Abscissic acid/(+)-(S)-ABA/(S)-5-(1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-(2Z,4E)-pentadienoic acid/(2Z,4E)-5-[(1S)-1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-yl]-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid/(S)-(+)-Abscisic Acid/(+)-(S)-Abscisic Acid/(2Z,4E)-5-[(1S)-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-3-methyl-2,4-pentadienoic Acid/(2Z,4E)-5-[(1S)-1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-3-methyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid/Abscisic acid/S-(+)-Abscisic acid/2,4-Pentadienoic acid, 5-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-3-methyl-, (2Z,4E)-/(2Z,4E)-5-((S)-1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-yl)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid/(S-(Z,E))-5-(1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-yl)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid/(2Z,4E)-5-(1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid/DORMIN/(±)-cis,trans-abscisic acid/2,4-Pentadienoic acid, 5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-, (S-(Z,E))-/(+)-Cis,Trans-AbsCisic Acid/(rac)-Abscisic acid/(7E,9Z)-(6S)-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-11-apo-ε-caroten-11-oic acid/(+)-(cis,trans)-Abscisic Acid/(7E,9Z)-(6S)-6-Hydroxy-3-oxo-11-apo-e-caroten-11-oic Acid/(+)-Abscisic acid/(2Z,4E)-5-(1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-yl)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid
458.7±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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PTR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana is negatively regulated by ABI4 and plays a key role in water uptake by seeds, ensuring that imbibed seeds proceed to germination. Peptide transporters (PTRs) transport nitrogen-containing substrates in a proton-dependent manner. Among the six PTRs in Arabidopsis thaliana, the physiological role of the tonoplast-localized, seed embryo abundant PTR2 is unknown. In the present study, a molecular physiological analysis of PTR2 was conducted using ptr2 mutants and PTR2CO complementation lines. Compared with the wild type, the ptr2 mutant showed ca. 6 h delay in testa rupture and consequently endosperm rupture because of 17% lower water content and 10% higher free abscisic acid (ABA) content. Constitutive overexpression of the PTR2 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in ptr2 mutants rescued the mutant phenotypes. After cold stratification, a transient increase in ABA INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) transcript levels during induction of testa rupture was followed by a similar increase in PTR2 transcript levels, which peaked prior to endosperm rupture. The PTR2 promoter region containing multiple CCAC motifs was recognized by ABI4 in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and PTR2 expression was repressed by 67% in ABI4 overexpression lines compared with the wild type, suggesting that PTR2 is an immediate downstream target of ABI4. Taken together, the results suggest that ABI4-dependent temporal regulation of PTR2 expression may influence water status during seed germination to promote the post-germinative growth of imbibed seeds.
ABA; ABI4; Arabidopsis; Peptide transporter 2; Seed germination; Water uptake
Peptide transporter2 (PTR2) enhances water uptake during early seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Choi MG1,2, Kim EJ1, Song JY1, Choi SB3, Cho SW4, Park CS4, Kang CS5, Park YI6.
Using bulked segregant analysis of exome sequence, we fine-mapped the ABA-hypersensitive mutant ERA8 in a wheat backcross population to the TaMKK3-A locus of chromosome 4A. Preharvest sprouting (PHS) is the germination of mature grain on the mother plant when it rains before harvest. The ENHANCED RESPONSE TO ABA8 (ERA8) mutant increases seed dormancy and, consequently, PHS tolerance in soft white wheat ‘Zak.’ ERA8 was mapped to chromosome 4A in a Zak/’ZakERA8′ backcross population using bulked segregant analysis of exome sequenced DNA (BSA-exome-seq). ERA8 was fine-mapped relative to mutagen-induced SNPs to a 4.6 Mb region containing 70 genes. In the backcross population, the ERA8 ABA-hypersensitive phenotype was strongly linked to a missense mutation in TaMKK3-A-G1093A (LOD 16.5), a gene associated with natural PHS tolerance in barley and wheat. The map position of ERA8 was confirmed in an ‘Otis’/ZakERA8 but not in a ‘Louise’/ZakERA8 mapping population. This is likely because Otis carries the same natural PHS susceptible MKK3-A-A660S allele as Zak, whereas Louise carries the PHS-tolerant MKK3-A-C660R allele. Thus, the variation for grain dormancy and PHS tolerance in the Louise/ZakERA8 population likely resulted from segregation of other loci rather than segregation for PHS tolerance at the MKK3 locus. This inadvertent complementation test suggests that the MKK3-A-G1093A mutation causes the ERA8 phenotype. Moreover, MKK3 was a known ABA signaling gene in the 70-gene 4.6 Mb ERA8 interval. None of these 70 genes showed the differential regulation in wild-type Zak versus ERA8 expected of a promoter mutation. Thus, the working model is that the ERA8 phenotype results from the MKK3-A-G1093A mutation.
Exome sequencing of bulked segregants identified a novel TaMKK3-A allele linked to the wheat ERA8 ABA-hypersensitive germination phenotype.
Martinez SA1,2, Shorinola O3, Conselman S2, See D1,2,4, Skinner DZ1,2,4, Uauy C3, Steber CM5,6,7.
To explore the alleviation effect of spraying phytohormone on physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato under drought stress in different periods, and to determine the best period of spraying external plant hormones, the effects on endogenous hormone content, photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics and yield of sweet potato were examined by spraying 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) respectively under drought stress after transplanting for 20 days (early stage), 60 days (middle stage) and 100 days (later stage) under artificial water control. The results showed that compared with spraying water, exogenous phytohormones significantly increased the yield of sweet potato under drought stress, among which 6-BA had the highest effect, followed by NAA and ABA. The effect of spraying in early stage was better than that in middle and late stages. Exogenous phytohormones significantly increased photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of sweet potato leaves under drought stress at different stages, alleviated the decrease in eatin ribonucleoside (ZR) and auxin (IAA) caused by drought. Stepwise regression analysis showed that endogenous hormones and photosynthetic characteristics were key factors affecting yield of sweet potato. Results of path analysis showed that spraying exogenous plant hormone affected sweet potato yield by changing net photosynthetic rate (Pn), IAA, ZR, maximal photochemical efficiency and photochemical performance index under drought stress at early stage. Therefore, spraying 6-BA could regulate the content of endogenous hormones and improve photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato at the early growth stage, and thus effectively alleviate the loss of yield caused by drought stress.
drought stress; endogenous hormone; exogenous plant hormones; sweet potato
[Effects of exogenous plant hormones on physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato under drought stress].
Wang JQ1, Li H1, Liu Q1, Zeng LS1.