White crystalline powder
Leonurus japonicus,Panax notoginseng,Peucedanum praeruptorum,Pinellia ternata,Rehmannia glutinosa
(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol/Adenosin/β-D-Ribofuranose, 1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-/4-26-00-03598/9β-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-Purin-6-amine/Adesine/1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-β-D-Ribofuranose/6-Amino-9-b-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-purine/Adenocor/Sandesin/(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-3,4-furandiol/9-β-δ-Ribofuranosidoadenine/(-)-adenosine/9-β-δ-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amine/(-)-adenosine/9-b-D-Ribofuranosidoadenine/D-Adenosine/Adenosine/Adenine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside/Adrekar/9-β-D-Ribofuranosyladenine/9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyladenine/9-b-D-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amine/Boniton/Adenine riboside/Adenoscan/adenine-9β-D-Ribofuranoside/Adenocard/9-β-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine/Myocol
676.3±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:58-61-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Adenosine is not just a major component of adenine nucleotides and ribonucleic acids, but also has its own signaling functions. ExtraceIlular level of adenosine in an organism is strictly maintained through the balance between its formation, degradation and transport. Adenosine is formed by enzymatic degradation of adenosine triphosphate and eliminated by phosphorylation to adenosine monophosphate or by deamination to inosine. Transport of adenosine across the cell membrane is ensured by equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporters. All these processes participate in maintenance of adenosine level under normal conditions, but a balanced equilibrium can be disrupted in some pathophysiological situations. Extracellular adenosine as a signaling molecule binds to adenosine receptors, which may trigger via their cognate trimeric G proteins different signaling pathways. In this way, adenosine regulates energy homeostasis and affects the function of various organs. Targeted pharmacological manipulations of specific adenosine receptor subtypes or enzymes involved in its metabolism can potentially be used for therapeutic purposes.
[Adenosine and its role in physiology].
Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (<10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this article, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted.
Adenosine; controlled drug delivery; controlled release; drug delivery; drug targeting; nanoparticles; targeted drug delivery
Adenosine-associated delivery systems.
Kazemzadeh-Narbat M1,2,3, Annabi N1,2,4,5, Tamayol A1,2, Oklu R6, Ghanem A3, Khademhosseini A1,2,4,7.
Cervical cancer (CeCa) produces large amounts of IL-10, which downregulates the major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (HLA-I) in cancer cells and inhibits the immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In this study, we analyzed the ability of CeCa cells to produce IL-10 through the CD73-adenosine pathway and its effect on the downregulation of HLA-I molecules to evade CTL-mediated immune recognition. CeCa cells cultured in the presence of ≥10 µM AMP or adenosine produced 4.5-6 times as much IL-10 as unstimulated cells. The silencing of CD73 or the blocking of A2BR with the specific antagonist MRS1754 reversed this effect. In addition, IL-10 decreased the expression of HLA-I molecules, resulting in the protection of CeCa cells against the cytotoxic activity of CTLs. The addition of MRS1754 or anti-IL-10 reversed the decrease in HLA-I molecules and favored the cytotoxic activity of CTLs. These results strongly suggest the presence of a feedback loop encompassing the adenosinergic pathway, the production of IL-10, and the downregulation of HLA-I molecules in CeCa cells that favors immune evasion and thus tumor progression. This pathway may have clinical importance as a therapeutic target.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A(2B) adenosine receptor; Adenosinergic pathway; Cervical cancer; HLA Class I downregulation; Immune evasion; Interleukin-10
Adenosine augments the production of IL-10 in cervical cancer cells through interaction with the A2B adenosine receptor, resulting in protection against the activity of cytotoxic T cells.
Torres-Pineda DB1, Mora-Garcia ML2, Garcia-Rocha R2, Hernandez-Montes J2, Weiss-Steider B2, Montesinos-Montesinos JJ3, Don-Lopez CA2, Marin-Aquino LA4, MuNoz-Godinez R4, Ibarra LRa2, Lopez Romero R5, Monroy-Garcia A6.
2020 Apr 4
Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.Target: Nucleoside antimetabolite/analogAdenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer — as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) — as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP. It is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation.Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes. Cellular signaling by adenosine occurs through four known adenosine receptor subtypes. Extracellular adenosine concentrations from normal cells are approximately 300 nM; however, in response to cellular damage (e.g. in inflammatory or ischemic tissue), these concentrations are quickly elevated (600-1,200 nM). Thus, in regard to stress or injury, the function of adenosine is primarily that of cytoprotection preventing tissue damage during instances of hypoxia, ischemia, and seizure activity. Activation of A2A receptors produces a constellation of responses that in general can be classified as anti-inflammatory.