Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
567.7±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Probiotics are considered to have multiple beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract, including immunomodulation, pathogen inhibition, and improved host nutrient metabolism. However, extensive characterization of these properties is needed to define suitable clinical applications for probiotic candidates. Lactobacillus johnsonii 456 (LBJ 456) was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-genotoxic effects in a mouse model. Here, we characterize its resistance to gastric and bile acids as well as its ability to inhibit gut pathogens and adhere to host mucosa. While bile resistance and in vitro host attachment properties of LBJ 456 were comparable to other tested probiotics, LBJ 456 maintained higher viability at lower pH conditions compared to other tested strains. LBJ 456 also altered pathogen adhesion to LS 174T monolayers and demonstrated contact-dependent and independent inhibition of pathogen growth. Genome analyses further revealed possible genetic elements involved in host attachment and pathogen inhibition. Importantly, we show that ingestion of Lactobacillus johnsonii 456 over a one week yogurt course leads to persistent viable bacteria detectable even beyond the period of initial ingestion, unlike many other previously described probiotic species of lactic acid bacteria.
Gut microbiota, probiotics, microbiology, bacteria, lactobacillus
A novel probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii 456, resists acid and can persist in the human gut beyond the initial ingestion period
Michael J. Davoren,a,* Jared Liu,b,* Jocelyn Castellanos,a Norma I. Rodriguez-Malave,c and Robert H. Schiestla
To validate the Portuguese-language version of the STOP-Bang (acronym for Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender) questionnaire, culturally adapted for use in Brazil, as a means of screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults.
In this validation study, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age, recruited between May of 2015 and November of 2016. All patients completed the STOP-Bang questionnaire and underwent overnight polysomnography. To evaluate the performance of the questionnaire, we used contingency tables and areas under the (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUCs).
We included 456 patients. The mean age was 43.7 ± 12.5 years, and 291 (63.8%) of the patients were male. On the basis of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), we categorized OSA as mild/moderate/severe (any OSA; AHI ≥ 5 events/h), moderate/severe (AHI ≥ 15 events/h), or severe (AHI ≥ 30 events/h). The overall prevalence of OSA was 78.3%, compared with 52.0%, and 28.5% for moderate/severe and severe OSA, respectively. The most common score on the STOP-Bang questionnaire was 4 points (n = 106), followed by 3 points (n = 85) and 5 points (n = 82). An increase in the score was paralleled by a reduction in sensitivity with a corresponding increase in specificity for all AHI cut-off points. The AUCs obtained for the identification of any, moderate/severe, and severe OSA were: 0.743, 0.731, and 0.779, respectively. For any OSA, the score on the questionnaire (cut-off, ≥ 3 points) presented sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 83.5%, 45.5%, and 75.2%, respectively.
The STOP-Bang questionnaire performed adequately for OSA screening, indicating that it could be used as an effective screening tool for the disorder.
Sleep apnea, obstructive/diagnosis; Polysomnography; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Surveys and questionnaires
Validation of the STOP-Bang questionnaire as a means of screening for obstructive sleep apnea in adults in Brazil
Ricardo Luiz de Menezes Duarte, 1 , 2 Lorena Barbosa de Moraes Fonseca, 3 , 4 , 5 Flavio Jose Magalhães-da-Silveira, 1 Erika Aparecida da Silveira, 3 and Marcelo Fouad Rabahi 3 , 4 , 5
Hydroethidine (HE) is a cell-permeable probe used for the intracellular detection of superoxide. Here we report the direct measurement of the rate constant between hydroethidine and superoxide radical anion using the pulse radiolysis technique. This reaction rate constant was calculated to be ca. 2·106 M-1s-1 in water:ethanol (1:1) mixture. The spectral characteristics of the intermediates indicated that the one-electron oxidation product of HE was different from the one-electron reduction product of ethidium (E+). The HPLC-electrochemical measurements of incubation mixtures containing HE and the oxygenated Fenton’s reagent (Fe2+/DTPA/H2O2) in the presence of aliphatic alcohols or formate as a superoxide generating system revealed 2-OH-E+ as a major product. Formation of 2-OH-E+ by the Fenton’s reagent without additives was shown to be superoxide dismutase-sensitive and we attribute the formation of superoxide radical anion to the one-electron reduction of oxygen by the DTPA-derived radical. Addition of tert-butanol, DMSO, and potassium bromide to the Fenton’s system caused inhibition of 2-OH-E+ formation. Results indicate that reducing and oxidizing radicals have differential effects on the formation of 2-OH-E+.
Pulse radiolysis and steady-state analyses of the reaction between hydroethidine and superoxide and other oxidants
Jacek Zielonka,a,b Tadeusz Sarna,c Joan E. Roberts,d James F. Wishart,e and B. Kalyanaramana
2008 Mar 19.