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Catalogue Number : BF-A1002
Specification : 98%
CAS number : 482-39-3
Formula : C21H20O10
Molecular Weight : 432.381
PUBCHEM ID : 5316673
Volume : 5mg

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Afzelin (Synonyms: Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside)

Afzelin (Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside) is is a flavonol glycoside found in Houttuynia cordata Thunberg and is widely used in the preparation of antibacterial and antipyretic agents, detoxicants and for the treatment of inflammation. Afzelin attenuates the mitochondrial damage, enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and decreases the level of mitophagy-related proteins

Catalogue Number


Analysis Method






Molecular Weight



Yellow powder

Botanical Source

Albizia julibrissin,Lindera aggregata,Houttuynia cordata,Ailanthus fordii,Bergenia scopulosa

Structure Type










1.7±0.1 g/cm3


Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.

Flash Point

272.4±26.4 °C

Boiling Point

765.6±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point



InChl Key


WGK Germany


HS Code Reference


Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:482-39-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate




Particulate matter (PM), a widespread airborne contaminant, is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the air. Recent studies have demonstrated that PM induces oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions, and may cause certain skin diseases. Afzelin is a flavonoid isolated from Thesium chinense Turcz, which has anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate if afzelin affected inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes exposed to PM.

HaCaT cells were treated with PM (25 µg/cm2) in the presence or absence of afzelin (200 µM). Here, standard reference material 1649b was used as PM. Cell viability was assessed using the water‑soluble tetrazolium salt‑1 assay. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using the dichloro‑dihydro‑​fluorescein diacetate assay. Gene and protein expression was investigated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively.

Levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines were measured using ELISA. The results suggested that afzelin inhibited PM‑induced proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and protein secretion in HaCaT cells. In addition, afzelin suppressed PM‑induced intracellular ROS generation, and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase and transcription factor activator protein‑1 component c‑Fos and c‑Jun activation. The results indicated that afzelin exerts anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant effects in PM‑exposed HaCaT.

Afzelin may have the potential for preventing PM‑induced inflammatory skin diseases.


Afzelin suppresses proinflammatory responses in particulate matter-exposed human keratinocytes


Ju Hee Kim 1, Minjeong Kim 1, Jae Min Kim 1, Mi-Kyung Lee 2, Seong Jun Seo 1, Kui Young Park 1

Publish date

2019 Jun




Cyclocarya paliurus has been widely used as an ingredient in functional foods in China. However, the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds and the effect of the plant origin remain unclear.

The present study evaluated the geographical variation of this plant in terms of its phenolic composition and antioxidant activities based on leaf materials collected from five regions. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that there are three major components, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, and their contents varied significantly among sampling locations.

The investigated phenolic compounds showed substantial antioxidant activities, both in vitro and in vivo, with the highest capacity observed from Wufeng and Jinzhongshan. Correlation analysis revealed that quercetin and kaempferol glycosides might be responsible for the antioxidant activities. Our results indicate the importance of geographic origin, with sunny hours and temperature as the main drivers affecting the accumulation of C. paliurus phenolics and their antioxidant properties.


Cyclocarya paliurus; HPLC; antioxidant; geographic origin; phenolics.


Geographic Variation in the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja Leaves


Yang Liu 1 2, Pei Chen 3, Mingming Zhou 4, Tongli Wang 5, Shengzuo Fang 6 7, Xulan Shang 8 9, Xiangxiang Fu 10 11

Publish date

2018 Sep 24




Quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin are the dominant flavonoids compounds from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves, and they play major roles in the antioxidant activity. Macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) treatment, a simple, low-cost and efficient method, was combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to enrich and purify these four flavonoids from Z. bungeanum leaves efficiently. The optimal conditions for UAE based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were determined to be an ethanol concentration of 60%, leaves size of 40 mesh, temperature of 50 °C and ultrasonic power of 400 W with four flavonoids contents of 120.84 mg/g. After the extraction process, five kinds of MARs (D4020, D-101, NKA-9, AB-8, and X-5) were tested through static adsorption/desorption to enrich and purify the ultrasonic-assisted extracts, and D-101 was selected as the most suitable resin. The optimal adsorption conditions were 5 bed volumes (BV) of sample solution with an initial concentration of 7.5 mg/mL and pH 5.0. Meanwhile, the optimal desorption parameters were 5 BV each of deionized water and 30% ethanol, then 10 BV 70% ethanol, and a flow rate of 2 BV/hr. Under the optimized conditions, the contents of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin increased by 276.39%, 187.46%, 221.81%, and 288.45%, respectively, and the recovery yields were 85.47%, 73.53%, 81.35%, and 65.06%. In addition, laboratory preparative-scale separation indicated that the preparative separation of four flavonoids was feasible and easy. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the purified products were significantly increased after enrichment. In conclusion, all of the results indicated that these methods are highly efficient, low cost, environmentally friendly and easy to scale up.

Practical application: This study provided an environmentally friendly, rapid, and highly productive method for the extraction and purification of four active compounds from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves. The results can be used for the utilization of Z. bungeanum leaves as a kind of food supplement in an industrial setting.


antioxidant activity; flavonoids; macroporous adsorption resins; ultrasound-assisted extraction, Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves.


Simultaneous Enrichment and Separation of Four Flavonoids from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Leaves by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Macroporous Resins with Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities


Zhaochen Wu 1, Wei Wang 1, Fengyuan He 1, Dengwu Li 1, Dongmei Wang 1

Publish date

2018 Aug