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Allitol

$400

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BN-O1558

  • Specification : 98%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 488-44-8

  • Formula : C6H14O6

  • Molecular Weight : 182.2

  • PUBCHEM ID : 120700

  • Volume : 100mg

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Catalogue Number

BN-O1558

Analysis Method

Specification

98%(HPLC)

Storage

-20℃

Molecular Weight

182.2

Appearance

Cryst.

Botanical Source

This product is isolated and purified from the herb of Itea yunnanensis Franch.

Structure Type

Category

SMILES

C(C(C(C(C(CO)O)O)O)O)O

Synonyms

D-Sorbitol/galactitol/L-Allitol/D-Allitol/(2R,3R,4S,5S)-Hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexaol/Allitol/sorbitol

IUPAC Name

Density

1.6±0.1 g/cm3

Solubility

Flash Point

292.5±23.3 °C

Boiling Point

494.9±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point

InChl

InChl Key

FBPFZTCFMRRESA-FBXFSONDSA-N

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:488-44-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

No Technical Documents Available For This Product.

PMID

32210803

Abstract

Kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists represent alternative analgesics for their low abuse potential, although relevant adverse effects have limited their clinical use. Functionally selective KOPr agonists may activate, in a pathway-specific manner, G protein-mediated signaling, that produces antinociception, over β-arrestin 2-dependent induction of p38MAPK, which preferentially contributes to adverse effects. Thus, functionally selective KOPr agonists biased toward G protein-coupled intracellular signaling over β-arrestin-2-mediated pathways may be considered candidate therapeutics possibly devoid of many of the typical adverse effects elicited by classic KOPr agonists. Nonetheless, the potential utility of functionally selective agonists at opioid receptors is still highly debated; therefore, further studies are necessary to fully understand whether it will be possible to develop more effective and safer analgesics by exploiting functional selectivity at KOPr. In the present study we investigated in vitro functional selectivity and in vivo antinociceptive effects of LOR17, a novel KOPr selective peptidic agonist that we synthesized. LOR17-mediated effects on adenylyl cyclase inhibition, ERK1/2, p38MAPK phosphorylation, and astrocyte cell proliferation were studied in HEK-293 cells expressing hKOPr, U87-MG glioblastoma cells, and primary human astrocytes; biased agonism was investigated via cAMP ELISA and β-arrestin 2 recruitment assays. Antinociception and antihypersensitivity were assessed in mice via warm-water tail-withdrawal test, intraperitoneal acid-induced writhing, and a model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold hypersensitivity. Effects of LOR17 on locomotor activity, exploratory activity, and forced-swim behavior were also assayed. We found that LOR17 is a selective, G protein biased KOPr agonist that inhibits adenylyl cyclase and activates early-phase ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Conversely to classic KOPr agonists as U50,488, LOR17 neither induces p38MAPK phosphorylation nor increases KOPr-dependent, p38MAPK-mediated cell proliferation in astrocytes. Moreover, LOR17 counteracts, in a concentration-dependent manner, U50,488-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation and astrocyte cell proliferation. Both U50,488 and LOR17 display potent antinociception in models of acute nociception, whereas LOR17 counteracts oxaliplatin-induced thermal hypersensitivity better than U50,488, and it is effective after single or repeated s.c. administration. LOR17 administered at a dose that fully alleviated oxaliplatin-induced thermal hypersensitivity did not alter motor coordination, locomotor and exploratory activities nor induced pro-depressant-like behavior. LOR17, therefore, may emerge as a novel KOPr agonist displaying functional selectivity toward G protein signaling and eliciting antinociceptive/antihypersensitivity effects in different animal models, including oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

KEYWORDS

kappa opioid receptor, functional selectivity, intracellular signaling, chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, antinociception

Title

Functional Selectivity and Antinociceptive Effects of a Novel KOPr Agonist

Author

Andrea Bedini, 1 Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, 2 Laura Micheli, 2 Monica Baiula, 1 Gabriela Vaca, 1 Rossella De Marco, 3 , 4 Luca Gentilucci, 3 Carla Ghelardini, 2 and Santi Spampinato 1 , *

Publish date

2020;

PMID

28589966

Abstract

κ-Opioid receptors (KORs) and their endogenous ligand dynorphin are involved in stress-induced alcohol seeking but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. We previously showed that systemic injections of the KOR agonist U50,488, which induce stress-like aversive states, reinstate alcohol seeking after extinction of the alcohol-reinforced responding. Here, we used the neuronal activity marker Fos and site-specific injections of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI and U50,488 to study brain mechanisms of U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. We trained male Long-Evans rats to self-administer alcohol (12% w/v) for 23-30 days. After extinction of the alcohol-reinforced responding, we tested the effect of U50,488 (0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg) on reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Next, we correlated regional Fos expression with reinstatement induced by the most effective U50,488 dose (5 mg/kg). Based on the correlational Fos results, we determined the effect of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) injections of nor-BNI (4 μg/side) on U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and reinstatement induced by injections of U50,488 (0, 0.3, 1, and 3 μg/side) into the BNST. U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking was associated with increased Fos expression in multiple brain areas, including the BNST, where it was significantly correlated with lever pressing. U50,488-induced reinstatement was blocked by BNST nor-BNI injections, and BNST U50,488 injections partially mimicked the drug’s systemic effect on reinstatement. Our data indicate that the BNST is a critical site for U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and suggest that KOR/dynorphin mechanisms in this brain area play a key role in stress-induced alcohol seeking.

Title

Role of κ-Opioid Receptors in the Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis in Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking

Author

A D Lê,1,2,3 Douglas Funk,1,* Kathleen Coen,1 Sahar Tamadon,1 and Yavin Shaham4

Publish date

2018 Mar;

PMID

31556948

Abstract

Background
Stress is associated with relapse to alcohol seeking during abstinence, but the processes underlying this relationship are poorly understood. Noradrenaline is a key transmitter in stress responses and in stress-induced drug seeking. The alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin has been investigated as a treatment for alcoholism and for chronic stress disorders that are frequently comorbid with alcoholism. In rats, we previously showed that prazosin blocks reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by footshock and yohimbine stressors and reduces yohimbine-induced brain activation. The role of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in reinstatement induced by other stressors is not known. Our most recent work is on the role of kappa opioid receptors in stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and have reported that the selective kappa opioid receptor agonist U50,488 induces reinstatement and neuronal activation in stress- and relapse-related brain regions. Here we determine the involvement of alpha-1 receptors in reinstatement and brain activation induced by U50,488.

Methods
We trained male Long-Evans rats to self-administer alcohol (12% w/v), extinguished alcohol-reinforced responding, and then determined the effects of prazosin (1 mg/kg) on U50,488 (2.5 mg/kg)-induced reinstatement and regional Fos expression.

Results
Prazosin blocked U50,488-induced reinstatement and decreased U50,488-induced Fos expression in the orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core, ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central and basolateral amygdalar nuclei and ventral tegmental area.

Conclusions
These findings suggest that prazosin may reduce U50,488-induced relapse by inhibiting activity in 1 or more of these brain areas.

KEYWORDS

kappa opioid, alpha-1 adrenoceptor, noradrenaline, stress, Fos

Title

Effects of the Alpha-1 Antagonist Prazosin on KOR Agonist-Induced Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking

Author

Douglas Funk,1 Kathleen Coen,1 Sahar Tamadon,1 and A D Lê1,2,3

Publish date

2019 Nov;


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