heartwoods of Pinus armandii Franch
α-PINENE, (+)-/EINECS 201-291-9/Pina-2-ene/PC500/L46 A EUTJ A1 A1 D1 &&(+)-α or (1R,5R)- Form/AciteneA/(1R)-(+)-α-Pinene/1R-(+)-α-pinene/PERMOUNT/(1R,5R)-2,6,6-Trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene/Australene/Bicyclo(3.1.1)hept-2-ene, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, (1R,5R)-/α-Pinene/2-Pinene/Bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, (1R,5R)-/(1R,5R)-α-pinene/pin-2-ene/(1R,5R)-2-Pinene/Alpha-Pinene/Pinene/c 500
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α-Pinene is an important monoterpene that is widely used as a pharmaceutical product, biofuel, and so forth. We first established a cell-free system with modular cocatalysis for the production of pinene from glucose. After optimization of the compositions of the cell-free reaction mixture using the Plackett-Burman experimental design and the path of steepest ascent, the production of pinene increased by 57%. It was found that ammonium acetate, NAD+, and NADPH are the three most important parameters for the production of pinene. Mix-and-match experiments showed that the simultaneous addition of the lysate of Escherichia coli overexpressing native 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase, SufBCD Fe-S cluster assembly protein, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, and Pinus taeda pinene synthase improved the production of pinene. Increasing the enzyme concentration of the extract further enhanced the production of pinene to 1256.31 ± 46.12 mg/L with a productivity of 104.7 mg/L h, almost 1.2-fold faster than any system reported thus far. This study demonstrates that a cell-free system is a powerful and robust platform for biomanufacture.
Escherichia coli crude lysate; cell-free metabolic engineering; cell-free synthetic biology; optimization; pinene
Enhanced Production of Pinene by Using a Cell-Free System with Modular Cocatalysis.
Niu FX1,2, Huang YB1, Shen YP1, Ji LN1, Liu JZ1.
2020 Feb 19;
The main aim of this work was to characterize the volatile profile of virgin pistachio oils produced from eight cultivars (Aegina, Avdat, Kastel, Kerman, Larnaka, Mateur, Napoletana and Sirora), under different technological conditions (temperature, roasting, use of whole nuts, screw speed and nozzle diameter), and compare it with those of commercial pistachio oils. Terpenes (15.57-41.05 mg/kg), accounting for ~97% of total volatiles, were associated with appreciated sensory properties, with α-pinene as the main volatile (14.47-37.09 mg/kg). Other terpene compounds such as limonene (0.11-3.58 mg/kg), terpinolene (0.00-1.61 mg/kg), β-pinene (0.12-1.20 mg/kg) and α-terpineol (0.00-1.17 mg/kg) were quantified at lower concentrations. Acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters and hydrocarbons only summed to ~3% of the total volatile compounds. The volatiles content greatly depended on the pistachio cultivar employed. The influence of extraction conditions was also very relevant; in particular, terpenes doubled (28.38-53.84 mg/kg) using whole pistachios for oil extraction, also being incremented by mild processing conditions. On the contrary, higher temperature or roasting decreased the terpene content (~50-25% respectively), and pyrazines appeared (up to 3.12 mg/kg).
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cultivars; Roasting; Technological conditions; Virgin pistachio oil; Volatiles
Influence of cultivar and technological conditions on the volatile profile of virgin pistachio oils.
Ojeda-Amador RM1, Fregapane G2, Salvador MD3.
2020 May 1;
Volatile monoterpenes are emitted in large quantities to both air and soil by many plant species. While studies have addressed effects of monoterpenes on aboveground invertebrates, we have much poorer understanding of the possible effects of monoterpenes on soil invertebrates. Monoterpenes play a protective role in some plant species during heat and water stress, and therefore may provide similar protection against abiotic stress to soil invertebrates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the common monoterpene, α-pinene, on the soil living springtail, Folsomia candida (Collembola; Isotomidae). We hypothesized that exposure to α-pinene would lower the transition temperature of membranes, and thereby improve cold tolerance. Controlled exposure to α-pinene, which is a volatile liquid at room temperature, was made possible by passive dosing through the air-phase using a lipid donor. This lipid-based passive dosing approach also allows linking observed effects to concentrations in membrane when equilibrium is achieved. Equilibrium membrane concentrations above 116 mmol kg-1 caused springtails to become comatose, and coma recovery time was proportional to exposure concentration. Alpha-pinene delayed time to first egg laying, while the number of eggs laid and hatchability was unaffected. Springtails exposed to α-pinene showed increased survival of cold shock (-6 °C, 2 h), but no effects on heat (34 °C, 2 h) or drought tolerance (98.2% relative humidity, 7d) were observed. The present study has demonstrated that α-pinene has direct toxic effects to F. candida, but on the other hand can improve their cold tolerance considerably at membrane concentrations above 87 mmol kg-1.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of α-pinene on life history traits and stress tolerance in the springtail Folsomia candida.
Jensen TG1, Holmstrup M1, Madsen RB2, Glasius M2, Trac LN3, Mayer P3, Ehlers B1, Slotsbo S4.