Gentiana scabra Bge/ Gentiana sp. and Swertia japonica
(4aS,5R,6S)-1-Oxo-5-vinyl-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyran-6-yl 2-O-[(3,3',5-trihydroxybiphenyl-2-yl)carbonyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside/(4aS,5R,6S)-5-ethenyl-1-oxo-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyran-6-yl 2-O-[(3,3',5-trihydroxybiphenyl-2-yl)carbonyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside/amorogentin/sweroside-2'-O-3",5",3'''-trihydroxy-biphenyl-2''-carboxylic acid/[4aS-(4aa,5b,6a)]-3,3',5-Trihydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic Acid 2-Ester with 5-Ethenyl-6-(b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1-one/Sweroside-2'-(3'',5'',3'''-trihydroxydiphenyl)-2''-carboxylic Acid Ester/amarosgentin/Amarogentin Hydrate/(4aS,5R,6S)-1-Oxo-5-vinyl-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyran-6-yl 2-O-[(3,3',5-trihydroxy-2-biphenylyl)carbonyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside/1H,3H-Pyrano(3,4-c)pyran-1-one, 5-ethenyl-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-6-((2-O-((3,3',5-trihydroxy(1,1'-biphenyl)-2-yl)carbonyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-, (4aS,5R,6S)-/1H,3H-Pyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1-one, 5-ethenyl-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-6-[[2-O-[(3,3',5-trihydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)carbonyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-, (4aS,5R,6S)-/Amarogentin
Amarogentin is a secoiridoid glycoside that is mainly extracted from Swertia and Gentiana roots. Amarogentin exhibits many biological effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-tumour, and anti-diabetic activities. Amarogentin exerts hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory effects. Amarogentin promotes apoptosis, arrests G2/M cell cycle and downregulates of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathways. Amarogentin exerts beneficial vasculo-metabolic effect by activating AMPK.
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Amarogentin (AG) is one of the bitter secoiridoid glycosides, which exerts various pharmacological activities as a bitter stomachic. Recently, there is an increasing demand for AG-containing plants in Japan due to their use as folk medicines and food additives; hence, it is crucial to develop analytical techniques that are specific for AG. In this study, a new magnetic particles-based enzyme immunoassay (MPs-EIA) using a specific monoclonal antibody against AG (MAb 1E9) for the rapid determination of AG in plants of the family Gentianaceae was described. AG directly immobilized onto magnetic particles (MPs) was used as a competitor for free AG against MAb 1E9, thereby increasing the surface area of the solid phase and decreasing the immunoreaction time. In addition, the blocking step required in case of the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could be avoided in the proposed MPs-EIA, which enables an even more rapid performance for the immunoassay. In the developed MPs-EIA, AG exhibited linearity in the range of 15.6-500 ng mL-1, with a limit of detection of 8.58 ng mL-1. Validation analysis revealed that MPs-EIA is a sufficiently sensitive and rapid for the quantitative analysis of AG in plant samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MPs-EIA that has been applied to plant samples.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amarogentin (AG); Gentianaceae; Magnetic particles-based enzyme immunoassay (MPs-EIA); Monoclonal antibody (MAb)
Magnetic particles-based enzyme immunoassay for rapid determination of secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin.
Sakamoto S1, Wada S2, Morita Y2, Yamaguchi T2, Tanaka H3, Morimoto S2.
2019 Mar 1
In this study, antitumor activity of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; major component of green tea polyphenol), eugenol (active component of clove), and amarogentin (active component of chirata plant) either alone or in combination were evaluated in Hela cell line. It was evident that EGCG with eugenol-amrogentin could highly inhibit the cellular proliferation and colony formation than individual treatments. Induction of apoptosis was also higher after treatment with EGCG in combination with eugenol-amrogentin than individual compound treatments. The antiproliferative effect of these compounds was due to downregulation of cyclinD1 and upregulation of cell cycle inhibitors LIMD1, RBSP3, and p16 at G1/S phase of cell cycle. Treatment of these compounds could induce promoter hypomethylation of LimD1 and P16 genes as a result of reduced expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Thus, our study indicated the better chemotherapeutic effect of EGCG in combination with eugenol-amarogentin in Hela cell line. The chemotherapeutic effect might be due to the epigenetic modification particularly DNA hypomethylation through downregulation of DNMT1.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DNMT1; EGCG; amarogentin; combination of drugs; epigenetics; eugenol
Epigallocatechin gallate in combination with eugenol or amarogentin shows synergistic chemotherapeutic potential in cervical cancer cell line.
Pal D1, Sur S1, Roy R1, Mandal S2, Kumar Panda C1.
Amarogentin (AG) is a secoiridoid glycoside that is mainly extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Swertia and Gentiana, which have been widely used in clinical practice to treat liver disease. However, the exact hepatoprotective mechanism of AG was still looking forward to further elucidation by far. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following three groups: control, model and AG. Fibrosis was induced by CCl4. Mice were orally treated with 100mg/kg AG or with normal saline as a control. At the end of the experiment, the validity of the model and the hepatoprotective effects of AG were examined by histopathology and biochemical indicators. Metabonomics technology was further performed to systematically evaluate the endogenous metabolite profiles. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) technology with pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), showed a clear separation of the model group and the control group, with the AG treatment group located much closer to the control group than the model group, which was consistent with the results of biochemical and histopathological assays. Moreover, nine potential biomarkers were identified to elucidate the drug mechanism of AG, which may be related to pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amarogentin; GC-TOF-MS; Liver fibrosis; Metabonomics
Serum metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effect of amarogentin on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice by GC-TOF-MS analysis.
Zhang Y1, Zhang M1, Li H1, Zhao H2, Wang F1, He Q1, Zhang T3, Wang S4.
2018 Feb 5