This product is isolated and purified from the roots of Anisodus tanguticus
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
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Background: Tropane Alkaloids (TAs) are important drugs for curing many diseases in the medical industry.
Methods: To sustainably exploit TA resources in endangered traditional Tibetan herbs, the hairy root (HR) systems of Przewalskia tangutica Maxim. and Anisodus tanguticus Maxim. were compared under the same culture conditions.
Results: The results indicated that both the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains and explants affected the HR induction frequency, MSU440, A4 and LBA9402 strains could induce hairy roots following infection of cotyledon and hypocotyl of A. tanguticus while LBA9402 could not induce HR on either explants of P. tangutica. The efficiency of LBA9402 was higher than A4 and MSU440 on A. tanguticus and A4 was better strain than MSU440 on P. tangutica. The hypocotyl explant was more suitable for P.tangutica and cotyledon explant was better for A.tangutica with a transformation frequency of 33.3% (P. tangutica) and 82.5% (A. tanguticus), respectively. In a flask reactor system, both the growth curves of HR for two species both appeared to be “S” curve; however, the HR of P. tangutica grew more rapidly than that of A. tanguticus, and the latter accumulated more biomass than the former. As the culture volume increased, the HR proliferation coefficient of both the species increased. HPLC analysis results showed that the content of TAs in the HR of P. tangutica was 257.24mg/100g·DW, which was more than that of A. tanguticus HR (251.08mg/100g·DW), and the anisodamine in the Pt- HR was significantly higher than that in At-HR. Moreover, tropane alkaloids in the HR of the two species were all significantly higher than that of the roots of aseptic seedlings.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that HR of P. tangutica and A. tanguticus both could provide a useful platform for sustainable utilization of two Tibetan medicinal plants in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the future.
Agrobacterium rhizogenes; Anisodus tanguticus Maxim.; Przewalskia tangutica Maxim.; growth curve; hairy roots; tropane alkaloids..
Comparison of Profiling of Hairy Root of Two Tibetan Medicinal Plants Przewalskia tangutica Maxim. and Anisodus tanguticus Maxim
Tianxiang Lei 1 2, Huan Wang 3, Songling Li 4, Xiaojian Cai 4, Shilong Chen 1 2 5, Tingfeng Cheng 1 2, Jianwei Shen 3, Shengbo Shi 1, Dangwei Zhou 1 2 5
Mandrakes (Mandragora spp., Solanaceae) are known to contain tropane alkaloids and have been used since antiquity in traditional medicine. Tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine and hyoscyamine are used in modern medicine to treat pain, motion sickness, as eye pupil dilators and antidotes against organo-phosphate poisoning. Hyoscyamine is converted to 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine (anisodamine) and scopolamine by hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H), a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase. We describe here a marked chemo-diversity in the tropane alkaloid content in Mandragora spp. M. officinarum and M. turcomanica lack anisodamine and scopolamine but display up to 10 fold higher hyoscyamine levels as compared with M. autumnalis. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that H6H is highly conserved among scopolamine-producing Solanaceae. MoH6H present in M. officinarum differs in several amino acid residues including a homozygotic mutation in the substrate binding region of the protein and its prevalence among accessions was confirmed by Cleaved-Amplified-Polymorphic-Sequence analyses. Functional expression revealed that MaH6H, a gene isolated from M. autumnalis encodes an active H6H enzyme while the MoH6H sequence isolated from M. officinarum was functionally inactive. A single G to T mutation in nucleotide 663 of MoH6H is associated with the lack of anisodamine and scopolamine in M. officinalis.
2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases; Anisodamine; Cleaved-amplified-polymorphic-sequence (CAPS) analyses; Hyoscyamine; Scopolamine; Solanaceae; Tropane alkaloids.
Alkaloid chemodiversity in Mandragora spp. is associated with loss-of-functionality of MoH6H, a hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase gene
Daniel Schlesinger 1, Rachel Davidovich Rikanati 2, Sergei Volis 3, Adi Faigenboim 4, Vera Vendramin 5, Federica Cattonaro 5, Matthew Hooper 6, Elad Oren 2, Mark Taylor 6, Yaron Sitrit 7, Moshe Inbar 8, Efraim Lewinsohn 9
Siniperca chuatsi is an economically important fish in China, but infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) causes high mortality and significant economic losses. Currently, vaccination is the most promising strategy to prevent infectious diseases, while adjuvant can effectively enhance immune responses. In this study, inactivated ISKNV vaccine was prepared, then poly (I:C), chitosan, anisodamine and ims1312 were used as adjuvants to evaluate the effect on the immune responses and ISKNV replication. Chitosan could strongly boost the protection of liver and spleen tissues by pathological sections. In serum, poly (I:C) and chitosan group had protective effect on catalase, acid phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen. mRNA expressions showed these adjuvants induced the cytokines of early immune responses (TNF-α, Viperin) in both spleen and mesonephron by real time quantitative RT-PCR assays. Meanwhile, poly (I:C), chitosan and anisodamine were significantly improved the antiviral function and inhibited ISKNV replication. Chitosan and anisodamine played a significantly protective role in the immune protective rate test. The results indicated that all the four adjuvants are valid in the inactivated ISKNV vaccine, and chitosan is recommended preferentially. The present study provides reference for other animal vaccine adjuvants.
Adjuvant; Anisodamine; Chitosan; ISKNV; Siniperca chuatsi; ims1312; poly(I:C).
Chitosan and anisodamine improve the immune efficacy of inactivated infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus vaccine in Siniperca chuatsi
Jiacheng Zhang 1, Xiaozhe Fu 2, Yanqi Zhang 3, Wentao Zhu 3, Yong Zhou 4, Gailing Yuan 3, Xiaoling Liu 3, Taoshan Ai 5, Lingbing Zeng 4, Jianguo Su 6