White crystalline powder/Yellow powder
Aristolochia debilis Sieb. et Zucc./Alkaloid from Aristolochia argentina, Aristolochia clematitis, Aristolochia esperanzae, Aristolochia longa, Aristolochia manshuriensis, Aristolochia rotunda, Aristolochia pallida, Aristolochia sipho (Aristolochia durior) and from the Chinese drugs Ching-
6-Nitrophenanthro[3,4-d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxylic acid/6-nitronaphtho[2,1-g][1,3]benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid/Aristolochic Acid B/Phenanthro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 6-nitro-/Aristolochic acid II
Aristolochic acid B is one of the major components of Aristolochic acids (AA) which are natural products derived from taxa in the Aristolochiaceae. Aristolochic acid is known to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen. Aristolochic acid B showes more carcinogenic risk than Aristolochic acid A in vivo.
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Aristolochic acid (AA) I and AA II, which have been classified as carcinogenic to human and have been proven to be nephrotoxic, are bioactive ingredients of many traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Thus, development of an efficient approach for separation and determination of AA I and AA II in biological samples and herbal plants is of significance. Herein, electromembrane extraction (EME) was for the first time used to separate AA I and AA II. It is noted that also for the first time 1-decanol was discovered and used as an efficient SLM solvent for EME of acidic compounds. The proposed EME system was used to extract AA I and AA II from urine samples (recovery≥68%). The approach of EME combined with LC-MS (EME-LC/MS) was evaluated using urine samples. The linear range for AA I and AA II was 10-1000 ng mL-1 (R2≥0.9970), and the limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for AA I and AA II were 2.7 and 2.9 ng mL-1, respectively. Finally, this EME-LC/MS approach was employed to discover AA I and AA II in the herbal plants. In addition, using standard addition method, AA I in Aristolochicaceae-Liao Asarum (ALA) and Radix Aristolochice (RA) were 0.23 and 2044.13 μg g-1, and AA II in ALA and RA were 0 and 338.48 μg g-1, respectively. The repeatability of EME-LC/MS at all cases for both urine samples and herbal plants was below 15% (RSD-value). We believe that EME would be a useful tool to isolate bioactive ingredients of TCMs from complex samples for different purposes.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aristolochic acids; Bioactive ingredient; Electromembrane extraction; Herbal plant; Human urine; Traditional Chinese medicine
Electromembrane extraction of aristolochic acids: New insights in separation of bioactive ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines.
Yan Y1, Huang C2, Shen X3.
2019 Dec 20
The integrity of tissue is crucial for a high-quality analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry image (MALDI-MSI). Various embedding media utilized in traditional tissue-sectioning techniques are generally not recommended for MALDI-MSI of dry and fragile plant tissues because of the ion suppression effect in MALDI ionization in the low-mass region as well as the undesirable structural deformation during the sample preparation. In this work, a novel poly-L-lysine (PLL)-based tissue embedding method was developed for MALDI-MSI analysis of dry and fragile aristolochia plant (AP) tissues. The practical application in fixation, embedding, cryosectioning, and mounting of the dry and fragile AP tissues demonstrated that the PLL-based embedding technique could provide good rigidity to the plant tissues analysis compared to that without embedding and gelatin embedding. With the assistance of the PLL embedding medium, high spatial resolution molecular ion maps of main compounds, including aristolochic acids I (AAI) and aristolochic acids II (AAII) in AP root tissue, could be achieved by MALDI-MSI with enhanced signal intensities and no obvious background interference. This work provides an alternative approach for embedding the dry and fragile plant tissues comparable with MALDI-MSI analysis.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aristolochia plant tissue; Aristolochic acids I; Aristolochic acids II; MALDI-MSI; Poly-l-lysine
Poly-l-lysine-based tissue embedding compatible with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging analysis of dry and fragile aristolochia plants.
He Y1, Guo W1, Luo K1, Sun Q1, Lin Z2, Cai Z3.
2019 Dec 20;
Aristolochia and related plants contain nephrotoxins and mutagens in the form of aristolochic acids (AAs). However, there is still lack of a fast and specific method for monitoring AAs in biological samples. Herein, we synthesized a hybrid magnetic mesoporous carbon-molecularly imprinted polymers (MMC@MIPs) as a novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent for selective recognition of aristolochic acid I and II from rat urine samples. The choline chloride/glycol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES) and indomethacin were used as the eluent and dummy template molecule accordingly. The morphology, structure property and surface groups of the prepared materials were investigated in sequence, and the optimum conditions of the MMC@MIPs-MSPE procedure were also optimized well. Results showed that the proposed method had a relatively satisfactory recovery (86.7-94.3%), with low standard deviation (<4.85%) and acceptable correlation coefficients (0.991-0.996). Overall, this work not only provides an inexpensive and eco-friendly method to fabricate MMC@MIPs, but also develops a highly promising approach for the detection of aristolochic acid I and II in biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aristolochic acids; Deep eutectic solvent; Magnetic mesoporous carbon; Magnetic solid-phase extraction; Molecular imprinted polymers
Combined magnetic porous molecularly imprinted polymers and deep eutectic solvents for efficient and selective extraction of aristolochic acid I and II from rat urine.
Ge YH1, Shu H1, Xu XY1, Guo PQ1, Liu RL2, Luo ZM1, Chang C1, Fu Q3.