(4aS,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,9R,10R,11R,12aR,14bS)-10,11-dihydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-2,2,6a,6b,9,12a-hexamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-4a-carboxylic acid/Arjunolic acid/(2α,3β)-2,3,23-Trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid/arjulonic acid/arjunilic acid/Olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 2,3,23-trihydroxy-, (2α,3β)-/2,3,23-Trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid
606.0±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Continuation of prolonged treatment against arsenicosis with conventional chelating therapy is a global challenge. The present study was intended to evaluate the defensive effect of arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and female reproductive dysfunction. Wistar strain adult female rats were given sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight) in combination with arjunolic acid (10 mg/kg body weight) orally for two estrous cycles. Electrozymographic analysis explored that arjunolic acid co-treatment counteracted As3+-induced ROS production in uterine tissue by stimulating the activities of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants. Arjunolic acid was able to enhance the protection against mutagenic uterine DNA breakage, necrosis, and ovarian-uterine tissue damages in arsenicated rats by improving the ovarian steroidogenesis. The mechanisms might be coupled with the augmentation of antioxidant defense system, partly through the elimination of arsenic with the involvement of S-adenosyl methionine pool where circulating levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine play critical roles as evidenced from our present investigation.
Arjunolic acid; Arsenic; Folic acid; SAM; Uterine oxidative stress; Vitamin B12
Arjunolic Acid Improves the Serum Level of Vitamin B12 and Folate in the Process of the Attenuation of Arsenic Induced Uterine Oxidative Stress.
Maity M1,2, Perveen H1,2, Dash M1,2, Jana S1,2, Khatun S1,2, Dey A1,2, Mandal AK3,4, Chattopadhyay S5,6.
Cisplatin is the first platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs. Cisplatin notable side effect of nephrotoxicity limits its use in clinic. Meanwhile, arjunolic acid possesses anti-inflammatory properties and plays protective roles against chemically induced organ pathophysiology. This study was conducted to find out whether arjunolic acid could attenuate kidney damage in rats, and to elucidate its possible mechanism of action. Fifty rats were treated with cisplatin (10mg/kg) in the presence/absence of 100 or 250mg/kg arjunolic acid. Arjunolic acid is given 1h after cisplatin. Morphological changes were assessed in kidney sections stained with Hematoxylin/Eosin and Masson Trichrome. Kidney samples were used for measurements of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and its type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β by ELISA. Gene expression NFκB was determined by real time-PCR. Kidney tissue apoptosis was assessed by measuring the activities of caspase-3/8/9. The renal protective effect of arjunolic acid was confirmed by approximately normal appearance of renal tissue and the relatively unaffected serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, arjunolic acid showed dose dependent reduction in cisplatin-induced elevation in renal levels of TGF-βR1, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-1β and caspases. These findings demonstrated that arjunolic acid attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity either indirectly by enhancing body antioxidant activity or directly through several mechanisms, including inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, blocking activation of TGF-β1, and anti-apoptotic effects.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caspase-3/8/9; Interleukin (IL)-1β; NADPH oxidase; Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; Transforming growth factor type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1); Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α
Renal protective effects of arjunolic acid in a cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity model.
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:
In recent years, a number of studies describing the effective therapeutic strategies of medicinal plants and their active constituents in traditional medicine have been reported. Indeed, tremendous demand for the development and implementation of these plant derived biomolecules in complementary and alternative medicine is increasing and appear to be promising candidates for pharmaceutical industrial research. These new molecules, especially those from natural resources, are considered as potential therapeutic targets, because they are derived from commonly consumed foodstuff and are considered to be safe for humans.
AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW:
This review highlights the beneficial role of arjunolic acid, a naturally occurring chiral triterpenoid saponin, in various organ pathophysiology and the underlying mechanism of its protective action. Studies on the biochemistry and pharmacology suggest the potential use of arjunolic acid as a novel promising therapeutic strategy.
WHAT THE READERS WILL GAIN:
The multifunctional therapeutic application of arjunolic acid has already been documented by its various biological functions including antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anticholinesterase, antitumor, antiasthmatic, wound healing and insect growth inhibitor activities. The scientific basis behind its therapeutic application as a cardioprotective agent in traditional medicine is justified by its ability to prevent myocardial necrosis and apoptosis, platelet aggregation, coagulation and lowering of blood pressure, heart rate, as well as cholesterol levels. Its antioxidant property coupled with metal chelating property (by its two hydroxyl groups) protects different organs from metal and drug-induced organ pathophysiology. Arjunolic acid also plays a beneficial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its associated complications. The mechanism of cytoprotection of arjunolic acid, at least in part, results from the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the respective pathophysiology. In addition to its other biological functions, it also possesses vibrant insecticidal properties and it has the potential to be used as a structural molecular framework for the design of molecular receptors in the general area of supramolecular chemistry and nanochemistry. Esters of arjunolic acid function as organogelators which has wide application in designing thermochromic switches and sensor devices. Arjunolic acid derived crown ether is an attractive candidate for the design of molecular receptors, biomimetics and supramolecular systems capable of performing some biological functions.
This review would provide useful information about the recent progress of natural product research in the domain of clinical science. This review also aims to untie the multifunctional therapeutic application of arjunolic acid, a nanometer-long naturally occurring chiral triterpenoid biomolecule.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Arjunolic acid: a new multifunctional therapeutic promise of alternative medicine.
Ghosh J1, Sil PC.