White crystalline powder
herb of Artemisia annua L.
2-[(1R,4R,4aS,8aR)-4,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl]prop-2-enoic acid/ARTEMISINIC ACID/Artemisic acid/Qing Hau acid/artemisininic acid/arteannuic acid/Qing Hao acid
Artemisinic acid (Qing Hao acid), an amorphane sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia annua L., possesses a variety of pharmacological activity, such as antimalarial activity, anti-tumor activity, antipyretic effect, antibacterial activity, allelopathy effect and anti-adipogenesis effect.
373.6±11.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system has emerged as the dominating tool for genome engineering, while also changes the speed and efficiency of metabolic engineering in conventional and non-conventional yeasts. Among these CRISPR-Cas systems, CRISPR-Cas9 technology has usually been applied for removing unfavorable target genes. Here, we used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to delete the gal80 gene in uracil-deficient strain and had successfully remolded the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can produce artemisinic acid without galactose induction. An L9(34) orthogonal test was adopted to investigate the effects of different factors on artemisinic acid production. Fermentation medium III with sucrose as carbon sources, 1% inoculum level, and 84-h culture time were identified as the optimal fermentation conditions. Under this condition, the maximum artemisinic acid production by engineered S. cerevisiae 1211-2 was 740 mg/L in shake-flask cultivation level. This study provided an effective approach to reform metabolic pathway of artemisinic acid-producing strain. The engineered S. cerevisiae 1211-2 may be applied to artemisinic acid production by industrial fermentation in the future.
The gal80 Deletion by CRISPR-Cas9 in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Produces Artemisinic Acid Without Galactose Induction.
Ai L1, Guo W1, Chen W2, Teng Y3, Bai L4,5.
A fast, simple, efficient, and high-throughput analytical protocol using deep eutectic solvents (DES) for mechanochemical extraction (MCE) combined with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was developed to quantify heat-labile bioactive compounds artemisinin (AN), arteannuin B, and artemisinic acid from Aretemisia annua. MCE is performed at room temperature, and target analytes are released into DESs within seconds; this method demonstrated multiple advantages over traditional extraction methods and organic solvents. DART-MS was then used for the structure confirmation and quantification for the three artemisinin major components extracted from plants of five locations. Liquid chromatography (LC) measurements were performed as well for results verification and comparison, and the amounts obtained were consistent between the two techniques. DART-MS showed advantages in simplicity, low limit of detection (5-15 ng mL-1), and superior speed (10-20 s), but with slightly higher relative standard deviation (0.7-10.8%). The entire protocol can be accomplished in a few minutes from raw materials to quantitative results. This study aims to establish a methodology combining high-efficiency sample pretreatment and rapid chemical analysis from complex matrixes, where the time-consuming separation procedure can be eliminated. Additionally, the use of toxic organic solvents needed in the process of chemical extraction and analysis is largely avoided. In general, this investigation provides a robust analytical procedure that can be widely used in many areas of research and industrial activities.
High-Throughput Analysis for Artemisinins with Deep Eutectic Solvents Mechanochemical Extraction and Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.
Wang J1, Zhou Y1, Wang M1, Bi W1, Li H1, Chen DDY1,2.
2018 Mar 6
Dao-di herbs are preferred by long-term clinical application of Chinese medicine, they are produced in a specific area and affected by the specific production and processing methods. Dao-di herbs have a high reputation, compared with other regions produced by the same kind of herbs with good quality, good efficacy and stable quality characteristics. Geo-herbal is a unique concept that has been formed by the history of Chinese civilization for thousands of years and the history of Chinese medicine. According to the definition of geo-herbal, it can be seen that there are some differences in the quality and efficacy of the same kind of medicinal herbs in different regions, and there is some similarity in the specific area. In this study, based on the content of artemisinic acid in sampling points and its potential environmental factors, the effects of geographical environment factors on the spatial distribution of artemisinic acid content in Artemisia annua were studied by using the geophysical model. The results show that the spatial distribution of artemisinic acid content is the result of a combination of multiple factors. The effects of environmental factors on the spatial distribution of artemisinic acid were in the order of soil type (0.233)> radiation (0.208)> vegetation type (0.192)> elevation (0.171)> sunshine (0.170)> annual mean temperature (0.153) >annual precipitation (0.111)> slope (0.110)> relative humidity. Among them, the soil type and the amount of radiation are the main influencing factors, and the main influencing area is in the soil type as the initial soil and the average annual radiation of 1 200-1 400 kWh•m⁻². The main influencing factors selected in this study can be used to monitor the spatial distribution of artemisinic acid by remote sensing technology, so as to provide the theoretical basis for the cultivation of A. annua.
Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Artemisia annua ; artemisinic acid ; geographic detectors ; influencing factors ; spatial differentiation
[Detection and analysis of effect of geographical environmental factors on spatial distribution of artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua].
Shi TT1, Zhang XB1, Guo LP1, Wang H1, Jing ZX1, Huang LQ1.
2017 Nov 14