DMSO : < 1 mg/mL (insoluble or slightly soluble)
*Astaxanthin is usually formulated as a suspension.
774.0±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:472-61-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
This study analyzed the effect of TiO2 on the growth and astaxanthin yield of P. rhodozyma PR106. Subsequently, proteomics method was used to analyze the proteins changes of the strain under TiO2 treatment, to investigate the metabolic mechanism of the active oxygen generator TiO2 promoting the astaxanthin synthesis in P. rhodozyma. The results showed that TiO2 caused oxidative stress response in P. rhodozyma, and astaxanthin yield was 14.74 mg/L, which was 2 times of the control group; while, TiO2 had no effect on biomass and apoptosis of the cells. Proteomics analysis and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) technology initially explored that bud-site selection protein (BUD22), ubiquitin-40s ribosomal protein s31 fusion protein, cell cycle control protein, C-4 methyl sterol oxidase and glutaredoxin were associated with astaxanthin synthesis.
Astaxanthin; Oxidative stress; Phaffia rhodozyma; Proteomics; TiO(2).
Astaxanthin overproduction and proteomic analysis of Phaffia rhodozyma under the oxidative stress induced by TiO 2
Jing Zhang 1, Qingru Li 1, Jiahuan Liu 1, Yanhong Lu 1, Yu Wang 1, Yuhua Wang 2
To improve lipid and astaxanthin productivity without compromising biomass during the whole cultivation period, carbon-dependent kinetics involving nitrogen stress was applied under excess light to elevate intracellular carbon availability and metabolic activity of Chromochloris zofingiensis. Results suggested that fed-batch strategy proposed could increase lipid and astaxanthin productivity to 457.1 and 2.0 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Biomass productivity at 1084.3 mg L-1 d-1 was comparable with that under suitable condition. Then 13C tracer-based metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) demonstrated that central carbon metabolism provided ATP, NADPH and carbon availability for lipid biosynthesis during the strategy. In combination with targeted metabolite analysis, 13C-MFA revealed that the strategy improved precursor content for lipid biosynthesis and elevated path rate to synthesize C16:0 and C18:0. The enhanced lipid content potentially accounted for the high biomass productivity. Therefore, comprehensively understanding relationships between carbon availability and carbon conversion could precisely design strategy for productivity improvements during cultivation.
Astaxanthin; Carbon availability; Carbon conversion; Fatty acid metabolism; Fed-batch culture.
A novel fed-batch strategy enhances lipid and astaxanthin productivity without compromising biomass of Chromochloris zofingiensis
Han Sun 1, Yuanyuan Ren 1, Yongmin Lao 2, Xiaojie Li 2, Feng Chen 3
Improving the content and production of high-value ketocarotenoid pigments is critical for the commercialization of microalgal biorefineries. This study reported the use of magnesium aminoclay (MgAC) nanoparticles for enhancement of astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis in photoautotrophic cultures. Addition of 1.0 g/L MgAC significantly promoted cellular astaxanthin biosynthesis (302 ± 69 pg/cell), presumably by inducing tolerable oxidative stress, corresponding to a 13.7-fold higher production compared to that in the MgAC-untreated control (22 ± 2 pg/cell). The lipid content and cell size of H. pluvialis improved by 13.6- and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared to that of the control. Despite reduced cell numbers, the overall astaxanthin production (10.3 ± 0.4 mg/L) improved by 40% compared to the control (7.3 ± 0.6 mg/L), owing to improved biomass production. However, an MgAC dosage above 1.0 g/L inhibited biomass production by inducing electrostatic cell wall destabilization and aggregation. Therefore, MgAC-induced stimulation of algae varies widely based on their morphological and physiological characteristics.
Aminoclay; Astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; Lipid; Nanoparticle.
Enhancement of astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis using magnesium aminoclay nanoparticles
Young-Eun Kim 1, Ibrahim A Matter 2, Nakyeong Lee 1, Mikyoung Jung 1, Young-Chul Lee 3, Sun-A Choi 4, Soo Youn Lee 4, Jung Rae Kim 1, You-Kwan Oh 5
The antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is higher in young mice than aged: a region specific study on brain. PUMID/DOI：26116165 Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Jun 27. Astaxanthin is a potential antioxidant which shows neuroprotective property. We aimed to investigate the age-dependent and region-specific antioxidant effects of Astaxanthin in mice brain. Treatment with Astaxanthin significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the level of MDA, APOP, NO in the cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum in both age groups. Astaxanthin markedly (p < 0.05) enhances the activity of CAT and SOD enzymes while improves the level of GSH in the brain. Overall, improvement of oxidative markers was significantly greater in the young group than the aged animal. In conclusion, we report that the activity of Astaxanthin is age-dependent, higher in young in compared to the aged brain. The protective effect of astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in mice. PUMID/DOI：24780381 Neuropharmacology. 2014 Sep;84:13-8. Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant with the ability of reducing the markers of inflammation. To explore the protective effect of Astaxanthin on maternal ethanol induced embryonic deficiency, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we detected the morphology, expression of neural marker genes, oxidative stress indexes, and inflammatory factors in mice model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder with or without Astaxanthin pretreatment. Our results showed that Astaxanthin blocked maternal ethanol induced retardation of embryonic growth, and the down-regulation of neural marker genes, Otx1 and Sox2. Moreover, Astaxanthin also reversed the increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the decrease of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. In addition, maternal ethanol induced up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the down-streaming myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-1β in embryos, and this was inhibited by Astaxanthin pretreatment. These results demonstrated a protective effect of Astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and suggested that oxidative stress and TLR4 signaling associated inflammatory reaction are involved in this process. Astaxanthin modulates osteopontin and transforming growth factor β1 expression levels in a rat model of nephrolithiasis: a comparison with citrate administration. PUMID/DOI：24712822 BJU Int. 2014 Sep;114(3):458-66. OBJECTIVES:||To evaluate the effect of Astaxanthin on renal angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) levels, osteopontin (OPN) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expressions and the extent of crystal deposition in experimentally induced calcium oxalate kidney stone disease in a male Wistar rat model. To compare the efficacy of Astaxanthin treatment with a currently used treatment strategy (citrate administration) for kidney stones.||RESULTS:||The renal ACE levels and the expression of OPN and TGF-β1 were upregulated in the nephrolithiasis-induced rats. Astaxanthin treatment reduced renal ACE levels and the expression OPN and TGF-β1. SEM-EDX analysis showed that crystal deposition was reduced in the Astaxanthin-treated nephrolithiatic group. Astaxanthin treatment was more effective than citrate administration in the regulation of renal ACE levels, OPN and TGF-β1 expressions.||CONCLUSIONS:||Astaxanthin administration reduced renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition possibly by modulating the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which reduced the expression of OPN and TGF-β1 levels. Astaxanthin administration was more effective than citrate treatment in reducing crystal deposition and down-regulating the expression of OPN and TGF-β1. Astaxanthin reduces matrix metalloproteinase expression in human chondrocytes. PUMID/DOI：24480614 Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Mar;19(1):174-7. Astaxanthin is a red carotenoid pigment which exerts multiple biological activities. However, little is known about the effects of Astaxanthin on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in OA. The present study investigated the effects of Astaxanthin on MMPs in human chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were pretreated with Astaxanthin at 1, 10 or 50μM, then, cells were stimulated with IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 24h. MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 were observed. We found that Astaxanthin reduced the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 as well as the phosphorylation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p38 and ERK1/2) in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. Astaxanthin also blocked the IκB-α degradation. These results suggest that Astaxanthin may be beneficial in the treatment of OA.