White crystalline powder
Astragalus membranaceus,Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus
Astragalus Polysaccharides/(3β,6α,9β,16β,20R,24S)-16,25-Dihydroxy-3-(β-D-xylopyranosyloxy)-20,24-epoxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-6-yl β-D-glucopyranoside/ASTRAGALOSIDE/Astrasieversianin XIV/Astragalus extract/Astragaloside IV/β-D-Glucopyranoside, (3β,6α,9β,16β,20R,24S)-20,24-epoxy-16,25-dihydroxy-3-(β-D-xylopyranosyloxy)-9,19-cyclolanostan-6-yl/cyclosieversioside F/cyclosiversioside F
Methanol; Ethanol; DMSO
895.7±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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Accumulating evidence suggests that M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in cancer progression and metastasis, making M2 polarization of TAMs an ever more appealing target for therapeutic intervention. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a saponin component isolated from Astragali radix, has been reported to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer, but its effects on TAMs during lung cancer progression have not been investigated.
Human THP-1 monocytes were induced to differentiate into M2 macrophages through treatments with IL-4, IL-13, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We used the lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 cultured in conditioned medium from M2 macrophages (M2-CM) to investigate the effects of AS-IV on tumor growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of lung cancer cells. Macrophage subset distribution, M1 and M2 macrophage-associated markers, and mRNA expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. The activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways that mediate M2-CM-promoted tumor migration was detected using western blotting.
Here we found that AS-IV significantly inhibited IL-13 and IL-4-induced M2 polarization of macrophages, as illustrated by reduced expression of CD206 and M2-associated genes, and that AS-IV suppressed the M2-CM-induced invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of A549 and H1299 cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that AS-IV greatly inhibited tumor growth and reduced the number of metastases of Lewis lung cancer. The percentage of M2 macrophages was decreased in tumor tissue after AS-IV treatment. Furthermore, AS-IV inhibited AMPKα activation in M2 macrophages, and silencing of AMPKα partially abrogated the inhibitory effect of AS-IV.
AS-IV reduced the growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of lung cancer by blocking the M2 polarization of macrophages partially through the AMPK signaling pathway, which appears to play an important role in AS-IV’s ability to inhibit the metastasis of lung cancer.
Astragaloside IV; Lung cancer; Macrophage polarization; Tumor-associated macrophages
Astragaloside IV inhibits lung cancer progression and metastasis by modulating macrophage polarization through AMPK signaling.
Xu F1,2, Cui WQ2,3, Wei Y1,2, Cui J1,2, Qiu J1,2, Hu LL1,2, Gong WY1,2, Dong JC4,5, Liu BJ6,7.
2018 Aug 29
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an important consequence of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) exerts multiple protective effects in diverse diseases. However, whether AS-IV can attenuate CIH-induced myocardial injury is unclear. In this study, rats exposed to CIH were established and treated with AS-IV for 4 weeks. In vitro, H9C2 cardiomyocytes subjected to CIH exposure were treated with AS-IV for 48 hours. Then the cardiac function, morphology, fibrosis, apoptosis and Ca2+ homeostasis were determined to assess cardiac damage. Results showed that AS-IV attenuated cardiac dysfunction and histological lesions in CIH rats. The increased TUNEL-positive cells and activated apoptotic proteins in CIH rats were reduced by AS-IV. We also noticed that AS-IV reversed the accumulation of Ca2+ and altered expressions of Ca2+ handling proteins (decreases of SERCA2a and RYR2, and increases of p-CaMKII and NCX1) under CIH exposure. Furthermore, CIH-induced reduction of SERCA2a activity was increased by AS-IV in rats. Similar results were also observed in H9C2 cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that AS-IV modulates Ca2+ homeostasis to inhibit apoptosis, protecting against CIH-induced myocardial injury eventually, suggesting it may be a potential agent for cardiac damage of OSAS patients. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a great contributor of OSAS, which is closely associated with cardiovascular diseases. It is necessary for developing a promising drug to attenuate CIH-induced myocardial injury. This work suggests that AS-IV can attenuate myocardial apoptosis and calcium disruption, thus protecting against CIH-induced myocardial injury. It may represent a novel therapeutic for cardiac damage of OSAS.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Astragaloside IV; Ca2+; chronic intermittent hypoxia; myocardial injury
Astragaloside IV attenuates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced myocardial injury by modulating Ca2+ homeostasis.
Jiang S1, Jiao G1, Chen Y1, Han M1, Wang X1, Liu W1.
2020 Apr 19
Decreased chemosensitivity among tumor cells is often an obstacle in cisplatin (Cis) chemotherapy. Overexpression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) is a key mechanism underlying decreased Cis chemosensitivity and resistance. Astragaloside IV (AS IV) is an important component derived from the well-known traditional Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus. The aim of this study was to explore the role of AS IV in enhancing the antitumor effect of Cis by suppressing MRP2 expression in HepG2 cells and H22 tumor-bearing mice. After co-treatment of HepG2 cells with Cis and AS IV, we assessed the effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Tumor growth and apoptosis assessment were performed to assess chemosensitivity in H22 tumor-bearing mice. We used western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and immunohistochemistry assays to detect MRP2 expression in HepG2 cells, H22 tumor tissues and mouse kidney tissues. AS IV enhanced Cis chemosensitivity by increasing tumor cell apoptosis and slowing tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. MRP2 overexpression in tumor cells was induced by Cis, which contributes to decreased chemosensitivity and Cis resistance. Co-administration of AS IV suppressed MRP2 expression in tumor tissues, which might be an important mechanism for enhancing Cis chemosensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, AS IV alleviated Cis-induced kidney injury in mice without changing MRP2 expression. In total, AS IV enhanced the antitumor effect of Cis against hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing MRP2 expression in tumor cells. The results provide a new insight into the combined use of a chemotherapy drug and natural ingredients to treat cancer.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Astragaloside IV; Chemosensitivity; Cisplatin; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2
Astragaloside IV enhances cisplatin chemosensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing MRP2.
Qu X1, Gao H1, Zhai J1, Sun J1, Tao L1, Zhang Y1, Song Y2, Hu T3.
2020 Apr 4
Astragaloside IV, an active component isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, suppresses the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and downregulates matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2, (MMP)-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.