Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.; Atractylodes japonica Koidz.ex Kitam.
Naphtho[2,3-b]furan, 4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-3,8a-dimethyl-5-methylene-, (4aS,8aR)-/(4aS,8aR)-3,8a-dimethyl-5-methylidene-4,4a,6,7,8,9-hexahydrobenzo[f]benzofuran(4aS,8aR)-3,8a-Dimethyl-5-methylene-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydronaphtho[2,3-b]furan/Atractylon
Ethyl Acetate; Petroleum ether
287.1±19.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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KMP6 (Pyeongwee-San) is a Korean Medicine used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, we reported KMP6 had beneficial effects on allergic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atractylone (Atr), a constituent of KMP6, on allergic rhinitis (AR) and to identify the mechanism responsible for these effects. The anti-allergic inflammatory effects of Atr were evaluated on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR animal model using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry methods. In HMC-1 cells, Atr and KMP6 attenuated PMACI-caused proinflammatory cytokine production and mRNA expression. We found that PMACI induced caspase-1/nuclear factor (NF)-κB/mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. PMACI-caused caspase-1/NF-κB/MAPKs activations were attenuated by Atr and KMP6. In AR animal model, Atr and KMP6 reduced AR clinical symptoms and biomarkers including rub scores, total IgE, histamine, prostaglandin D2, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. In addition, Atr and KMP6 attenuated eosinophils and mast cells invasions into nasal mucosa tissues and diminished mast cell-derived caspase-1 activation. These results indicate that Atr is an active constituent of KMP6 and a potential therapeutic agent for AR.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allergic rhinitis; Atractylone; Caspase-1; Mast cells; Proinflammatory cytokine; Thymic stromal lymphopoietin
Atractylone, an active constituent of KMP6, attenuates allergic inflammation on allergic rhinitis in vitro and in vivo models.
Kim HY1, Nam SY1, Hwang SY2, Kim HM3, Jeong HJ4.
2016 Oct 1
Atractylodis Rhizoma is a traditional medicinal herb, which has antibacterial, antiviral, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑allergic, anticancer, gastroprotective and neuroprotective activities. It is widely used for treating fever, cold, phlegm, edema and arthralgia syndrome in South‑East Asian nations. In this study, 6 chemical compositions of Atractylodis Rhizoma were characterized by spectral analysis and their antiviral activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Among them, atractylon showed most significant antiviral activities. Atractylon treatment at doses of 10‑40 mg/kg for 5 days attenuated influenza A virus (IAV)‑induced pulmonary injury and decreased the serum levels of interleukin (IL)‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑α and IL‑1β, but increased interferon‑β (IFN‑β) levels. Atractylon treatment upregulated the expression of Τoll‑like receptor 7 (TLR7), MyD88, tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6 and IFN‑β mRNA but downregulated nuclear factor‑κB p65 protein expression in the lung tissues of IAV‑infected mice. These results demonstrated that atractylon significantly alleviated IAV‑induced lung injury via regulating the TLR7 signaling pathway, and may warrant further evaluation as a possible agent for IAV treatment.
Antiviral activities of atractylon from Atractylodis Rhizoma.
Cheng Y1, Mai JY2, Hou TL2, Ping J2, Chen JJ1.
The rhizomes of many Atractylodes species, including Atractylodes chinensis Koidzumi, Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi, and Atractylodes japonica Koidzumi, are collectively termed Atractylodis Rhizoma. We prepared n-hexane extracts of the three species and evaluated their anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among all n-hexane extracts, those of A. japonica most strongly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells; five sesquiterpenes, atractylon, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and 8-epiasterolid, were isolated from A. japonica. The phytochemical content of A. japonica was similar to those of A. chinensis and A. macrocephala. Moreover, the atractylon concentration was higher in A. japonica than in A. chinensis and A. macrocephala. Atractylon significantly inhibited NO and prostaglandin E2 production as well as inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Atractylon (40 mg/kg) also significantly reduced the acetic-acid-induced writhing response, carrageenan-induced paw edema, and hot-plate latent pain response in mice. According to the results, A. japonica has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects and atractylon is the major active component of A. japonica. Therefore, atractylon can be used as a bioactivity marker in A. japonica.
Atractylodes japonica; anti-inflammation; antinociceptive effects; atractylon
Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Constituents of Atractylodes japonica Koidzumi.
Chen LG1, Jan YS, Tsai PW, Norimoto H2, Michihara S2, Murayama C2, Wang CC.
2016 Mar 23