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  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BD-P0178

  • Specification : 96.0%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 215319-47-4

  • Formula : C20H20O6

  • Molecular Weight : 356.37

  • PUBCHEM ID : 23252258

  • Volume : 10mg

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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:215319-47-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

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Papillomaviruses are small double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate episomally in the nuclei of infected cells. The full-length E1 protein of papillomaviruses is required for the replication of viral DNA. The viral mRNA from which the human papillomavirus type 18 E1 protein is expressed is not known. We demonstrate that in eukaryotic cells, the E1 protein is expressed from polycistronic mRNA containing E6, E7, and E1 open reading frames (ORFs). The translation of adjacent E7 and E1 ORFs is not associated; it is performed by separate populations of ribosomes. The translation of the downstream E1 gene is preceded by ribosome scanning. Scanning happens at least at the 5′ end of the polycistronic mRNA and also approximately 100 bp in front of the E1 gene. Long areas in middle of the mRNA are bypassed by ribosomes, possibly by ribosomal “shunting.” Inactivation of short minicistrons in the upstream area of the E1 gene did not change the expression level of the E1 gene.


Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E1 Protein Is Translated from Polycistronic mRNA by a Discontinuous Scanning Mechanism


Maido Remm,* Anu Remm, and Mart Ustav

Publish date

1999 Apr;




The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) has multiple roles during the initiation of translation of cytoplasmic mRNAs. How individual subunits of eIF3 contribute to the translation of specific mRNAs remains poorly understood, however. This is true in particular for those subunits that are not conserved in budding yeast, such as eIF3h.

Working with stable reporter transgenes in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, it was demonstrated that the h subunit of eIF3 contributes to the efficient translation initiation of mRNAs harboring upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in their 5′ leader sequence. uORFs, which can function as devices for translational regulation, are present in over 30% of Arabidopsis mRNAs, and are enriched among mRNAs for transcriptional regulators and protein modifying enzymes. Microarray comparisons of polysome loading in wild-type and eif3h mutant seedlings revealed that eIF3h generally helps to maintain efficient polysome loading of mRNAs harboring multiple uORFs. In addition, however, eIF3h also boosted the polysome loading of mRNAs with long leaders or coding sequences. Moreover, the relative polysome loading of certain functional groups of mRNAs, including ribosomal proteins, was actually increased in the eif3h mutant, suggesting that regulons of translational control can be revealed by mutations in generic translation initiation factors.

The intact eIF3h protein contributes to efficient translation initiation on 5′ leader sequences harboring multiple uORFs, although mRNA features independent of uORFs are also implicated.


On the functions of the h subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in late stages of translation initiation


Byung-Hoon Kim,1 Xue Cai,1,2 Justin N Vaughn,1 and Albrecht G von Arnimcorresponding author1

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Translation of Xenopus laevis Connexin41 mRNA is strongly controlled by the three upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in its 5′ untranslated region. Mutation of uAUG1 into AAG induced a 100-fold increase in translation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter ORF. The termination codon of uORF1 was mutated and the uORF was linked in-frame with the GFP ORF, enabling visualisation of initiation at uAUG1 by synthesis of an elongated GFP form. Unexpectedly, hardly any elongated GFP was made, suggesting that translation of uORF1 in wild-type mRNA causes constraining of the entry of 40S ribosomal subunits upstream of uORF1. A rare leucine codon, the third codon of uORF1, contributed to the slow translation and thus to slow scanning. Replacement of the rare leucine codon in uORF1 with a common leucine codon stimulated GFP translation. Remarkably, the rare leucine codon, the termination codon of uORF1, uAUG2 and uAUG3 all improved recognition of uAUG1. Apparently, the block formed by a stalled ribosome on any element in uORF1 prevented the landing of new ribosomal subunits next to the cap and therefore downregulated GFP translation.


Ribosomes stalling on uORF1 in the Xenopus Cx41 5′ UTR inhibit downstream translation initiation


Hedda A. Meijer* and Adri A. M. Thomas

Publish date

2003 Jun 15

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A New Neolignan Derivative, Balanophonin Isolated from Firmiana simplex Delays the Progress of Neuronal Cell Death by Inhibiting Microglial Activation PUMID/DOI:DOI: 10.4062/biomolther.2016.224 Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2017 Sep 1;25(5):519-527. Excessive activation of microglia causes the continuous production of neurotoxic mediators, which further causes neuron degeneration. Therefore, inhibition of microglial activation is a possible target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Balanophonin, a natural neolignoid from Firmiana simplex, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanism of balanophonin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of balanophonin. The results indicated that balanophonin reduced not only the LPS-mediated TLR4 activation but also the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in BV2 cells. Balanophonin also inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) protein expression and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Interestingly, it also inhibited neuronal cell death resulting from LPS-activated microglia by regulating cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage in N2a cells. In conclusion, our data indicated that balanophonin may delay the progression of neuronal cell death by inhibiting microglial activation. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Cirsium leucopsis, C. sipyleum, and C. eriophorum PUMID/DOI:DOI: 10.5560/ZNC.2014-0071 Z Naturforsch C. 2014 Sep-Oct;69(9-10):381-90. Two endemic Cirsium species, C. leucopsis DC. and C. sipyleum O. Schwarz, and C. eriophorum (L.) Scop. growing in Turkey were investigated to establish their secondary metabolites, fatty acid compositions, and antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials. Spectroscopic methods were used to elucidate the structures of thirteen known compounds (p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, vanillic acid, cis-epoxyconiferyl alcohol, syringin, balanophonin, 1′-O-methyl-balanophonin, apigenin, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, taraxasterol, taraxasterol acetate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside). cis-Epoxyconiferyl alcohol and 1′-O-methyl-balanophonin were isolated for the first time from Cirsium species. Palmitic acid (47.1%) was found to be the main fatty acid of C. leucopsis, linoleic acid in both C. sipyleum (42.1%) and C. eriophorum (37.8%). Assays of beta-carotene bleaching, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium (ABTS) cation radicals, and superoxide anion radicals, as well as cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were used to determine the antioxidant activities of the extracts and isolated compounds. Vanillic acid, balanophonin, and kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Taraxasterol was a potent inhibitor of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase activity, respectively. Melanogenesis inhibitors from the desert plant Anastatica hierochuntica in B16 melanoma cells. PUMID/DOI:DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1009.2013.00411 Chin J Nat Med. 2013 Jul;11(4):411-4. AIM: To study the chemical constituents and bioactivity of the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida. METHODS: The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by macroporous adsorptive resin D101, silica gel, and ODS column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-4 were investigated on OPM2 and RPMI-8226 cells. RESULTS: Four compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as (75, 85)-4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3, 5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (1), (+)-balanophonin (2), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-beta-coniferyl aldehyde ether (3), buddlenol A (4). CONCLUSION: Compound 1 is a novel norlignan, while compounds 1-4 exhibited marginal inhibition on the proliferation of OPM2 and RPMI-8226 cells. elanogenesis inhibitors from the desert plant Anastatica hierochuntica in B16 melanoma cells PUMID/DOI:DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.01.046 Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Mar 15;18(6):2337-45. The methanolic extract from the whole plants of Anastatica hierochuntica, an Egyptian herbal medicine, was found to inhibit melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Among the constituents isolated, anastatin A, silybin A, isosilybins A and B, eriodictyol, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, hierochins A and B, (2R,3S)-2,3-dihydro-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-5-(2-formylvinyl)-7-hydroxybenzofuran, (+)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, (+)-balanophonin, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-1,3-propanediol, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde substantially inhibited melanogenesis with IC(50) values of 6.1-32 mu M. With regard to the mechanism of action of silybins and isosilybins, the inhibition of tyrosinase activity suggested to be important. In addition, isosilybins A and B inhibited the mRNA expression of TRP-2, but silybins A and B oppositely enhanced the mRNA expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1 and -2 at 10 and/or 30 mu M, and the inhibition of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is involved in the enhanced expression of mRNA, at least in part, similar to that of PD98059. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Constituents of the seeds of Cornus officinalis with Inhibitory Activity on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) PUMID/DOI:DOI: 10.3839/jksabc.2008.055 Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):443-6. Ten compounds, (+)-pinoresinol (1), (-)-balanophonin (2), gallicin (3), vanillin (4), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (5), coniferaldehyde (6), betulinic acid (7), ursolic acid (8), 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (9), and malic acid (10), were isolated from a EtOAc-soluble fraction of the seeds of Cornus officinalis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods as well as by comparison with reported values. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-7 were isolated from this species for the first time. All the isolates (1-10) were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation. Among these, compounds 2 and 3 showed the significant inhibitory activity on AGEs formation with IC(50) values of 27.81 and 18.04 mu M, respectively