This product is isolated and purified from the herb of Solidago altissima
bauerenyl acetate/(3S,4aR,6bS,8aR,11R,12S,12aR,12bS,14aR,14bR)-4,4,6b,8a,11,12,12b,14b-Octamethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6b,7,8,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a,14b-icosahydro-3-picenyl acetate/3-Picenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,5,6b,7,8,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a,14b-eicosahydro-4,4,6b,8a,11,12,12b,14b-octamethyl-, acetate, (3S,4aR,6bS,8aR,11R,12S,12aR,12bS,14aR,14bR)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
508.0±49.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:17020-04-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Drowning is infrequently reported as a cause of death of wild birds and such incidents typically involve individual, rather than multiple, birds. Over a 21-year period (1993 to 2013 inclusive), we investigated 12 incidents of mortality of multiple (2 − 80+) Common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in Great Britain that appeared to be due to drowning. More than ten birds were affected in ten of these reported incidents. These incidents always occurred during the spring and early summer months and usually involved juvenile birds. In all cases, circumstantial evidence and post-mortem examinations indicated drowning to be the most likely cause of death with no underlying disease found. A behavioural explanation seems likely, possibly related to the gregarious nature of this species combined with juvenile inexperience in identifying water hazards. A review of data from the ringed bird recovery scheme across Great Britain (1909-2013 inclusive) of both starlings and Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), also a common garden visitor, identified additional suspected drowning incidents, which were significantly more common in the former species, supporting a species predisposition to drowning. For each species there was a marked seasonal peak from April to August. Drowning should be included as a differential diagnosis when investigating incidents of multiple starling mortality, especially of juveniles.
Drowning is an apparent and unexpected recurrent cause of mass mortality of Common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)
Becki Lawson,a,1 J. Paul Duff,2 Katie M. Beckmann,1 Julian Chantrey,3 Kirsi M. Peck,4 Richard M. Irvine,5 Robert A. Robinson,6 and Andrew A. Cunningham1
We evaluated the relationship between increased intraocular pressure (IOP), ischemia-modified albumin levels in serum (IMA-s) and in humor aqueous (IMA-HA) in rabbits.
Twenty-five albino New Zealand rabbits weighing between 2.0 and 2.8 kg were used in this pilot study. With permission from Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Animal Ethics Committee, the IOP of both eyes of each rabbit were recorded with a Tonopen (Tono-Pen XL, Reichart Inc., Depew, NY, USA) after the application of topical proparacaine 0.5% HCl anesthesia. Blood (4 mL) was collected from the marginal ear vein and an intracameral injection of 2.3 mg/mL sodium hyaluronate and subconjunctival dexamethasone was given in the right eye. Anterior chamber aqueous fluid was obtained using a limbal approach with a 27 gauge needle from both eyes. The left eyes were used as controls. IOP was measured on the 1st, 3rd and 10th day after the initial injection, with Tonopen, IMA-s levels and IMA-HA examined simultaneously.
Before the injections, IOP was 11.4±3.0 mm Hg in the right eye and 11.3±3.1 mm Hg in the left eye (P>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between IMA-s levels before the IOP increase (IMA-s0) and IMA-s levels on the 1st and 3rd days after the increase in IOP (P=0.012 and P=0.01, respectively). No difference was observed between IMA-s0 and serum IMA levels on the 10th day (IMA-s10) after IOP increase (P=0.989). IMA-HA in the right eye in the first day after the injection was positively correlated with IOP (r=0.748; P=0.02). No other correlation is found between any other parameter with IMA-HA levels at any test time. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between IMA-s values and IOP on the 1st and 3rd days (r=0.398, P=0.04 and r=0.382, P=0.04, respectively). There was no correlation between IMA-s levels and increased IOP on the 10th day after IOP increase (r=0.026, P=0.902).
IMA may be an important indicator of acute damage caused by diseases involving ischemic damage to the eye, especially in case of increased intraocular pressure.
ischemia-modified albumin, intraocular pressure, serum, humor aqueous, rabbit, eye
Relationship between raised intraocular pressure and ischemia-modified albumin in serum and humor aqueous: a pilot study in rabbits
Arzu Taskiran Comez, Dilek Ulker Cakir, Funda Kirtay Tutunculer, Baran Gencer, Hasan Ali Tufan
Antibodies towards type II collagen (CII) are detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in non-human primates and rodents with collagen induced arthritis (CIA). We have previously shown that antibodies specific for several CII-epitopes are pathogenic using monoclonal antibodies from arthritic mice, although the role of different anti-CII epitopes has not been investigated in detail in other species. We therefore performed an inter-species comparative study of the autoantibody response to CII in patients with RA versus monkeys and mice with CIA.
Analysis of the full epitope repertoire along the disease course of CIA was performed using a library of CII triple-helical peptides. The antibody responses to the major CII epitopes were analyzed in sera and synovial fluid from RA patients, and in sera from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and mice.
Many CII epitopes including the major C1, U1, and J1 were associated with established CIA and arginine residues played an important role in the anti-CII antibody interactions. The major epitopes were also recognized in RA patients, both in sera and even more pronounced in synovial fluid: 77% of the patients had antibodies to the U1 epitope. The anti-CII immune response was not restricted to the anti-citrulline protein antibodies (ACPA) positive RA group.
CII conformational dependent antibody responses are common in RA and are likely to originate from rheumatoid joints but did not show a correlation with ACPA response. Importantly, the fine specificity of the anti-CII response is similar with CIA in monkeys and rodents where the recognized epitopes are conserved and have a major pathogenic role. Thus, anti-CII antibodies may both contribute to, as well as be the consequence of, local joint inflammation.
Type II collagen antibody response is enriched in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid joints and directed to the same major epitopes as in collagen induced arthritis in primates and mice
Ingrid Lindh,1 Omri Snir,2,4 Erik Lonnblom,1 Huseyin Uysal,1,5 Ida Andersson,1 Kutty Selva Nandakumar,1 Michel Vierboom,3 Bert 't Hart,3 Vivianne Malmstrom,2 and Rikard Holmdahlcorresponding author1