benzoyl leuco methylene blue/[3,7-di(dimethylamino)-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl](phenyl)methanone/[3,7-Bis(dimethylamino)-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl](phenyl)methanone/Methanone, [3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl]phenyl-
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To follow the dynamics of microtubule (MT) assembly and disassembly during mitosis in living cells, tubulin has been covalently modified with the fluorochrome 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazin-2-yl)aminofluorescein and microinjected into fertilized eggs of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. The changing distribution of the fluorescent protein probe is visualized in a fluorescence microscope coupled to an image intensification video system. Cells that have been injected with fluorescent tubulin show fluorescent linear polymers that assemble very rapidly and radiate from the spindle poles, coincident with the position of the astral fibers. No fluorescent polymer is apparent in other areas of the cytoplasm. When fluorescent tubulin is injected near the completion of anaphase, little incorporation of fluorescent tubulin into polymer is apparent, suggesting that new polymerization does not occur past a critical point in anaphase. These results demonstrate that MT polymerization is very rapid in vivo and that the assembly is both temporally and spatially regulated within the injected cells. Furthermore, the microinjected tubulin is stable within the sea urchin cytoplasm for at least 1 h since it can be reutilized in successive daughter cell spindles. Control experiments indicate that the observed fluorescence is dependent on MT assembly. The fluorescence is greatly diminished upon treatment of the cells with cold or colchicine agents known to cause the depolymerization of assembled MT. In addition, cells injected with fluorescent bovine serum albumin or assembly-incompetent fluorescent tubulin do not exhibit fluorescence localized in the spindle but rather appear diffusely fluorescent throughout the cytoplasm.
Microinjection of fluorescent tubulin into dividing sea urchin cells
1983 Oct 1;
Significant progress has been made in recent years in characterizing human multipotent progenitor cells (hMPCs) of the early pancreas; however, the identity and persistence of these cells during the second trimester, after the initiation of branching morphogenesis, remain elusive. Additionally, studies on hMPCs have been hindered by few isolation methods that allow for the recovery of live cells. Here, we investigated the tip progenitor domain in the branched epithelium of human fetal pancreas between 13.5 and 17.5 gestational weeks by immunohistological staining. We also used a novel RNA‐based technology to isolate live cells followed by gene expression analyses. We identified cells co‐expressing SOX9 and PTF1A, two transcription factors known to be important for pancreatic MPCs, within the tips of the epithelium and observed a decrease in their proportions over time. Pancreatic SOX9+/PTF1A+ cells were enriched for MPC markers, including MYC and GATA6. These cells were proliferative and appeared active in branching morphogenesis and matrix remodeling, as evidenced by gene set enrichment analysis. We identified a hub of genes pertaining to the expanding tip progenitor niche, such as FOXF1, GLI3, TBX3, FGFR1, TGFBR2, ITGAV, ITGA2, and ITGB3. YAP1 of the Hippo pathway emerged as a highly enriched component within the SOX9+/PTF1A+ cells. Single‐cell RNA‐sequencing further corroborated the findings by identifying a cluster of SOX9+/PTF1A+ cells with multipotent characteristics. Based on these results, we propose that the SOX9+/PTF1A+ cells in the human pancreas are uncommitted MPC‐like cells that reside at the tips of the expanding pancreatic epithelium, directing self‐renewal and inducing pancreatic organogenesis. stem cells translational medicine 2019;8:1249&1264
Pancreas, Development, Human, Fetal, Multipotent pancreatic progenitors
SOX9+/PTF1A+ Cells Define the Tip Progenitor Cells of the Human Fetal Pancreas of the Second Trimester
Valentina Villani, 1 Matthew E. Thornton, 2 Heather N. Zook, 3 , 4 Christiana J. Crook, 3 , 4 Brendan H. Grubbs, 2 Giuseppe Orlando, 5 Roger De Filippo, 1 , 6 Hsun Teresa Ku, 3 , 4 , † and Laura Perincorresponding author 1 , 6 , †
Enfuvirtide and T-1249 are two HIV-1 fusion inhibitor peptides that bind to gp41 and prevent its fusogenic conformation, inhibiting viral entry into host cells. Previous studies established the relative preferences of these peptides for membrane model systems of defined lipid compositions. We aimed to understand the interaction of these peptides with the membranes of erythrocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The peptide behavior toward cell membranes was followed by di-8-ANEPPS fluorescence, a lipophilic probe sensitive to the changes in membrane dipole potential. We observed a fusion inhibitor concentration-dependent decrease on the membrane dipole potential. Quantitative analysis showed that T-1249 has an approximately eight-fold higher affinity towards cells, when compared with enfuvirtide. We also compared the binding towards di-8-ANEPPS labeled lipid vesicles that model cell membranes and obtained concordant results. We demonstrated the distinct enfuvirtide and T-1249 membranotropism for circulating blood cells, which can be translated to a feasible in vivo scenario. The enhanced interaction of T-1249 with cell membranes correlates with its higher efficacy, as it can increase and accelerate the drug binding to gp41 in its pre-fusion state.
HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitor Peptides Enfuvirtide and T-1249 Interact with Erythrocyte and Lymphocyte Membranes
Pedro M. Matos, Miguel A. R. B. Castanho, and Nuno C. Santos