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Tetraspanins emerge as a family of membrane proteins mediating an exceptional broad diversity of functions. The naming refers to their four transmembrane segments, which define the tetraspanins‘ typical membrane topology. In this study, we analyzed alternative splicing of tetraspanins. Besides isoforms with four transmembrane segments, most mRNA sequences are coding for isoforms with one, two or three transmembrane segments, representing structurally mono-, di- and trispanins. Moreover, alternative splicing may alter transmembrane topology, delete parts of the large extracellular loop, or generate alternative N- or C-termini. As a result, we define structure-based classes of non-conventional tetraspanins. The increase in gene products by alternative splicing is associated with an unexpected high structural variability of tetraspanins. We speculate that non-conventional tetraspanins have roles in regulating ER exit and modulating tetraspanin-enriched microdomain function.
Subject terms: RNA splicing, Proteomics, Structural biology
Classes of non-conventional tetraspanins defined by alternative splicing
Nikolas Hochheimer,1 Ricarda Sies,1 Anna C. Aschenbrenner,2,3 Dirk Schneider,4 and Thorsten Langcorresponding author1
In this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze bacterial communities from diverse populations (humans, animals, and vectors) to investigate the role of these microorganisms as causative agents of disease in human and animal populations. Wild rodents and ectoparasites were collected from 2014 to 2018 in Nan province, Thailand where scrub typhus is highly endemic. Samples from undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) patients were obtained from a local hospital. A total of 200 UFI patient samples were obtained and 309 rodents and 420 pools of ectoparasites were collected from rodents (n = 285) and domestic animals (n = 135). The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced with the Illumina. Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the next-generation sequencing (NGS) results and to characterize pathogen species. Several pathogens were detected by NGS in all populations studied and the most common pathogens identified included Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Leptospira spp., and Orientia tsutsugamushi. Interestingly, Anaplasma spp. was detected in patient, rodent and tick populations, although they were not previously known to cause human disease from this region. Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Neorickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in rodents and their associated ectoparasites. The same O. tsutsugamushi genotypes were shared among UFI patients, rodents, and chiggers in a single district indicating that the chiggers found on rodents were also likely responsible for transmitting to people. Serological testing using immunofluorescence assays in UFI samples showed high prevalence (IgM/IgG) of Rickettsia and Orientia pathogens, most notably among samples collected during September-November. Additionally, a higher number of seropositive samples belonged to patients in the working age population (20-60 years old). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the increased risk of human infection or exposure to chiggers and their associated pathogen (O. tsutsugamushi) resulted in part from two important factors; working age group and seasons for rice cultivation and harvesting. Evidence of pathogen exposure was shown to occur as there was seropositivity (IgG) in UFI patients for bartonellosis as well as for anaplasmosis. Using a metagenomic approach, this study demonstrated the circulation and transmission of several pathogens in the environment, some of which are known causative agents of illness in human populations.
metagenomic, bacterial community, disease epidemiology, disease transmission, scrub typhus, undifferentiated febrile illness
Metagenomic Approach to Characterizing Disease Epidemiology in a Disease-Endemic Environment in Northern Thailand
Ratree Takhampunya,1,* Achareeya Korkusol,1 Chalermpol Pongpichit,2 Komsan Yodin,2 Artharee Rungrojn,1 Nitima Chanarat,1 Sommai Promsathaporn,1 Taweesak Monkanna,1 Sasikanya Thaloengsok,1 Bousaraporn Tippayachai,1 Naruemon Kumfao,2 Allen L. Richards,3 and Silas A. Davidson1
Effective leukemia treatment is seriously hampered by drug resistance. We previously showed that aberrant methylation of the topoisomerase II α gene causes altered gene expression and acquired drug resistance in etoposide‐resistant leukemia cells. In this study, we analyzed the genome‐wide methylation status in resistant leukemia cells. We used MX2, which is a morpholino anthracycline derivative that functions as a topoisomerase II α inhibitor. We established a human myelogenous leukemia cell line (K562/P) and a related cell line with resistance to MX2 (K562/MX2). Using these cell lines, we investigated the genome‐wide methylation status, compared expression profiles with a microarray, and analyzed the data using Gene Ontology and key node analysis. We demonstrate that the MX2‐resistant cell line was globally hypermethylated. Gene Ontology analysis identified genes involved in the immunological response and gene silencing that were responsible for methylation‐related altered gene expression in drug‐resistant cells. Key node analysis showed that p38α mitogen‐activated protein kinase was a novel enzyme involved in MX2‐related resistance. p38 kinase activity in resistant cells was increased compared to MX2‐sensitive parent cells. Blocking p38α activity using inhibitors and p38α knock down with small interfering RNA restored the sensitivity to MX2 in resistant cells with a decrease in p38 kinase activity as well as decreased expression of p38α mRNA and phosphorylated p38α protein. These findings may lead to a new strategy for treatment of drug‐resistant leukemia cells
Drug resistance, key node search, leukemia, methylation array, morpholino anthracycline, p38α
Genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of CpG islands in a morpholino anthracycline derivative‐resistant leukemia cell line: p38α as a novel candidate for resistance
Takeshi Asano,corresponding author 1 Hidehiko Narazaki, 1 and Atsushi Fujita 1