roots of Beta vulgaris
(Trimethylammonio)acetate hydrochloride/Acinorm/lycine hydrochloride/ACIDOL/Betaine Hydrochloride/Achylin/Betaine, hydrochloride/Pluchine/BET HCL/1-carboxy-n,n,n-trimethylmethanaminium chloride/Acidin/Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride (1:1)/Euacid/Achyin/Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium chloride/betainium chloride/Acidine/Muriat/carboxymethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride/(Trimethylammonio)acetathydrochlorid/betaine chloride/betain hydrochloride/Betaine (hydrochloride)
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We reported previously that maternal betaine promotes hepatic insulin-like growth factor (IGF2) expression in F1 offspring rats through hypermethylation of the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR). It remains unknown whether this acquired trait can be transmitted to the F2 generation. This study aimed to determine whether dietary betaine supplementation to grand dams affects the hepatic IGF2 expression in F2 rat offspring and how it is related to alterations in DNA methylation. F2 rat offspring derived from grand dams fed basal or betaine-supplemented diet (10 g kg-1 ) were examined at weaning. Serum IGF2 concentration was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hepatic expression of IGF2, together with other proliferation and apoptosis markers, was determined by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The methylation status of the IGF2/H19 ICR and the promoters of IGF2 gene were detected by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MeDIP-qPCR).
The maternal betaine-induced up-regulation of hepatic IGF2 expression in F1 rat offspring was transmitted to the F2 generation. The F2 rats from the betaine group demonstrated enhanced hepatic IGF2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, in association with higher serum IGF2 concentration. No alterations were observed in the ICR methylation of the IGF2/H19 locus, and hypomethylation was detected in promoters of IGF2 gene in betaine group.
These results indicate that maternal betaine enhances hepatic IGF2 expression in F2 rat offspring through modification of DNA methylation on IGF2 promoters. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
© 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
DNA methylation; F2 rat offspring; IGF2; betaine; liver
Grandmaternal betaine supplementation enhances hepatic IGF2 expression in F2 rat offspring through modification of promoter DNA methylation.
Yang S1,2, Zhao N1,2, Sun B1,2, Yang Y1,2, Hu Y1,2, Zhao R1,2.
2020 Mar 15
Foreign body reaction (FBR) to implanted biomaterials and medical devices is common and can compromise the function of implants or cause complications. For example, in cell encapsulation, cellular overgrowth (CO) and fibrosis around the cellular constructs can reduce the mass transfer of oxygen, nutrients and metabolic wastes, undermining cell function and leading to transplant failure. Therefore, materials that mitigate FBR or CO will have broad applications in biomedicine. Here we report a group of zwitterionic, sulfobetaine (SB) and carboxybetaine (CB) modifications of alginates that reproducibly mitigate the CO of implanted alginate microcapsules in mice, dogs and pigs. Using the modified alginates (SB-alginates), we also demonstrate improved outcome of islet encapsulation in a chemically-induced diabetic mouse model. These zwitterion-modified alginates may contribute to the development of cell encapsulation therapies for type 1 diabetes and other hormone-deficient diseases.
Zwitterionically modified alginates mitigate cellular overgrowth for cell encapsulation.
Liu Q1, Chiu A1, Wang LH1, An D1, Zhong M1, Smink AM2, de Haan BJ2, de Vos P2, Keane K3, Vegge A4, Chen EY5, Song W1, Liu WF5, Flanders J6, Rescan C7, Grunnet LG7, Wang X1, Ma M8.
2019 Nov 20
The growth promoting effect of lysine and betaine as well as the expression of candidate genes reflecting their efficacy, such as ghrelin, leptin, Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF- 1) and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) was examined in Labeo rohita fingerlings.
One hundred eighty healthy juveniles from a homologous population were randomly distributed to 15 rectangular tanks of 150 litres capacity. The experiment was carried out for 60 days with five treatment groups consisting T1 (0.25% Betaine), T2 (0.5% Betaine), T3 (0.75% Lysine) and T4 (1.5% Lysine) and control group. The experiment was carried out for 60 days with five treatment groups consisting T1 (0.25% Betaine), T2 (0.5% Betaine), T3 (0.75% Lysine) and T4 (1.5% Lysine) and control group. At the end of trial, the growth parameters such as weight gain, SGR, PER were estimated from the weight of the triplicate groups. The digestive, metabolic and antioxidant enzymes were analysed using spectrophotometric methods. The intestine, brain and liver were sampled from the treatments and expression of different genes ghrelin, leptin, GHSR, IGF-1 and GHRH was also performed by realtime PCR.
A significant (P<0.05) increase in weight gain, SGR, PER and lowest FCR was found in T4 group which was significantly (p < 0.05) different from other experimental groups. The highest mRNA expression levels of expression were found in T4 group which was similar to that of ghrelin gene mRNA of T2 group. The significantly (p<0.05) highest GHSR, GHRH and IGF-1 gene expression levels were found in T4 treatment group compared to other groups.
The present study reveals that the lysine and betaine stimulate growth and expression of ghrelin GHRH, GHS-R and IGF-1 genes. The increase of IGF-I mRNA expression with lysine and betaine supplementation revealed that these compounds act as growth modulators. However, lysine was found to be a more potent modulator of growth compared to betaine.
© Copyright by the Author(s). Published by Cell Physiol Biochem Press.
Lysine; Betaine; Ghrelin; Leptin; Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone; Insulin like Growth Factor 1; Enzymes analysis
Expression of Growth and Hunger Related Genes and Physio-Biochemical Responses in Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) Fed with Lysine and Betaine.
Dar SA1, Srivastava PP2, Varghese T1, Gupta S1, Krishna G3, Nuzaiba PM1, Leya T1.
Betaine hydrochloride is a natural compound found in many foods and also an active methyl-donor which can maintain normal DNA methylation patterns.