Yellow crystalline powder
Ginkgo biloba L.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
869.9±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Ginkgo biloba (Gb) extracts have been used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Gb contains flavonoids, which are considered to be its active ingredients and have been used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, few scientific research studies on the side effects of flavonoid in Gb have been reported.
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of bilobetin on the kidney of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
STUDY DESIGN AND RESULT:
In this study, rats were injected with 50 mg/kg of bilobetin, a biflavone isolated from Gb, for 7 days and aristolochic acid was used as positive controls. The results showed that the body weight and urine output of the rats were dramatically decreased, and urinary protein increased after the intraperitoneal injection of bilobetin compared with the control group. Bilobetin treatment showed vacuolar degeneration in the renal tubular epithelium, glomerular atrophy by histostaining, and podocyte fusion by electron microscopy. This study further showed that bilobetin promoted the trafficking of aquaporin 2 (AQP-2) onto the plasma membrane to achieve the function of urine concentration by in vivo study in rats and in vitro study in IMCD-3 cells. The redistribution of AQP-2 is due to increased expression of cGMP in IMCD-3 cells, which in turn promoted the phosphorylation of AQP-2 at site Ser-256. The proteinuria caused by bilobetin may be attributed to podocyte cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition, which is may associated with AKT and MAPK signaling.
The current study showed that bilobetin has some side effects on kidneys at a dose of 50 mg/kg in SD rats and provides insight into the potential detrimental effects of monomeric ingredients in Gb.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Aquaporin 2; Bilobetin; Kidney; Podocytes; Proteinuria
Bilobetin induces kidney injury by influencing cGMP-mediated AQP-2 trafficking and podocyte cell cycle arrest.
Wang Q1, Wu ZL2, Yuan X2, Dong HY2, Xu X3, Xin H4, Wang YH4, Zhang JB5, Chen L5, Li HL6, Zhang XM7, Zhang WD8.
Although bilobetin, a biflavone isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba, represents a variety of pharmacological activities, to date there have been no validated determination methods for bilobetin in biological samples. Thus, we developed a liquid chromatographic method using a tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of bilobetin in rat plasma. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile including diclofenac (internal standard), the analytes were chromatographed on a reversed-phased column with a mobile phase of purified water and acetonitrile (3:7, v/v, including 0.1% formic acid). The ion transitions of the precursor to the product ion were principally deprotonated ions [M – H]- at m/z 551.2 → 519.2 for bilobetin and 296.1 → 251.7 for the IS. The accuracy and precision of the assay were in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration regulations for the validation of bioanalytical methods. This analytical method was successfully applied to monitor plasma concentrations of bilobetin over time following intravenous administration in rats.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HPLC-MS/MS; bilobetin; intravenous; rat
Quantitative determination of bilobetin in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Son H1, Kang W1.
2019 Dec 18
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
The amelioration of insulin resistance by bilobetin is closely related to its hypolipidaemic effect. The aim of the present study was to determine the insulin-sensitizing mechanism of bilobetin by elucidating its effect on lipid metabolism.
Rats fed a high-fat diet were treated with bilobetin for either 4 or 14 days before applying a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Triglyceride and fatty acids labelled with radioactive isotopes were used to track the transportation and the fate of lipids in tissues. The activity of lipid metabolism-related enzymes and β-oxidation rate were measured. Western blot was used to investigate the phosphorylation, translocation and expression of PPARα in several tissues and cultured cells. The location of amino acid residues subjected to phosphorylation in PPARα was also studied.
Bilobetin ameliorated insulin resistance, increased the hepatic uptake and oxidation of lipids, reduced very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride secretion and blood triglyceride levels, enhanced the expression and activity of enzymes involved in β-oxidation and attenuated the accumulation of triglycerides and their metabolites in tissues. Bilobetin also increased the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and activity of PPARα accompanied by elevated cAMP level and PKA activity. Threonine-129-alanine and/or serine-163-alanine mutations on the PPARα genes and PKA inhibitors prevented the effects of bilobetin on PPARα. However, cells overexpressing PKA appeared to stimulate the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and activity of PPARα.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:
Bilobetin treatment ameliorates hyperlipidaemia, lipotoxicity and insulin resistance in rats by stimulating PPARα-mediated lipid catabolism. PKA activation is crucial for this process.
© 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.
Bilobetin ameliorates insulin resistance by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of PPARα in rats fed a high-fat diet.
Kou XH1, Zhu MF, Chen D, Lu Y, Song HZ, Ye JL, Yue LF.
Bilobetin, an active component of Ginkgo biloba, can reduce blood lipids and improve the effects of insulin. Bilobetin ameliorated insulin resistance, increased the hepatic uptake and oxidation of lipids, reduced very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride secretion and blood triglyceride levels, enhanced the expression and activity of enzymes involved in β-oxidation and attenuated the accumulation of triglycerides and their metabolites in tissues. Bilobetin also increased the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and activity of PPARα accompanied by elevated cAMP level and PKA activity.