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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:24197-34-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Validation of a subset reveals expression in developing ampullary organs of transcription factor genes critical for hair cell development, and genes essential for glutamate release at hair cell ribbon synapses, suggesting close developmental, physiological and evolutionary links between non-teleost electroreceptors and hair cells. We identify an ampullary organ-specific proneural transcription factor, and candidates for the voltage-sensing L-type Cav channel and rectifying Kv channel predicted from skate (cartilaginous fish) ampullary organ electrophysiology. Overall, our results illuminate ampullary organ development, physiology and evolution.
Research Organism: Other
Insights into electrosensory organ development, physiology and evolution from a lateral line-enriched transcriptome
Melinda S Modrell,1 Mike Lyne,2,3 Adrian R Carr,2,3 Harold H Zakon,4,5 David Buckley,6,7 Alexander S Campbell,1 Marcus C Davis,8 Gos Micklem,2,3 and Clare VH Baker1,*
Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world’s species of Aphidura is presented.
Aphidura, new taxa, descriptions, intraspecific variation, key of species
Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov
Juan M. Nieto Nafria,1 Roger L. Blackman,2 and Jon H. Martin2
To close gaps in HIV prevention and care, knowledge about locations and populations most affected by HIV is essential. Here, we provide subnational and sub‐population estimates of three key HIV epidemiological indicators, which have been unavailable for most settings.
We used surveillance data on newly diagnosed HIV cases from 2004 to 2014 and back‐calculation modelling to estimate in France, at national and subnational levels, by exposure group and country of birth: the numbers of new HIV infections, the times to diagnosis, the numbers of undiagnosed HIV infections. The denominators used for rate calculations at national and subnational levels were based on population size (aged 18 to 64) estimates produced by the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies and the latest national surveys on sexual behaviour and drug use.
We estimated that, in 2014, national HIV incidence was 0.17‰ (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.16 to 0.18) or 6607 (95% CI: 6057 to 7196) adults, undiagnosed HIV prevalence was 0.64‰ (95% CI: 0.57 to 0.70) or 24,197 (95% CI: 22,296 to 25,944) adults and median time to diagnosis over the 2011 to 2014 period was 3.3 years (interquartile range: 1.2 to 5.7). Three mainland regions, including the Paris region, out of the 27 French regions accounted for 56% of the total number of new and undiagnosed infections. Incidence and undiagnosed prevalence rates were 2‐ to 10‐fold higher than the national rates in three overseas regions and in the Paris region (p‐values < 0.001). Rates of incidence and undiagnosed prevalence were higher than the national rates for the following populations (p‐values < 0.001): born‐abroad men who have sex with men (MSM) (respectively, 108‐ and 78‐fold), French‐born MSM (62‐ and 44‐fold), born‐abroad persons who inject drugs (14‐ and 18‐fold), sub‐Saharan African‐born heterosexuals (women 15‐ and 15‐fold, men 11‐ and 13‐fold). Importantly, affected populations varied from one region to another, and in regions apparently less impacted by HIV, some populations could be as impacted as those living in most impacted regions. Conclusions In France, some regions and populations have been most impacted by HIV. Subnational and sub‐population estimates of key indicators are not only essential to adapt, design implement and evaluate tailored HIV interventions in France, but also elsewhere where similar heterogeneity is likely to exist.
HIV incidence, undiagnosed HIV prevalence, time to HIV diagnosis, subnational and sub‐population estimates, modelling, exposure group, geographical analysis, map
Revealing geographical and population heterogeneity in HIV incidence, undiagnosed HIV prevalence and time to diagnosis to improve prevention and care: estimates for France
Lise Marty,corresponding author 1 Francoise Cazein, 2 Henri Panjo, 3 , 4 Josiane Pillonel, 2 Dominique Costagliola, 1 Virginie Supervie,corresponding author 1 and the HERMETIC Study Group †