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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:22567-38-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Munc13-1 acts as a master regulator of neurotransmitter release, mediating docking-priming of synaptic vesicles and diverse presynaptic plasticity processes. It is unclear how the functions of the multiple domains of Munc13-1 are coordinated. The crystal structure of a Munc13-1 fragment including its C1, C2B and MUN domains (C1C2BMUN) reveals a 19.5 nm-long multi-helical structure with the C1 and C2B domains packed at one end. The similar orientations of the respective diacyglycerol- and Ca2+-binding sites of the C1 and C2B domains suggest that the two domains cooperate in plasma-membrane binding and that activation of Munc13-1 by Ca2+ and diacylglycerol during short-term presynaptic plasticity are closely interrelated. Electrophysiological experiments in mouse neurons support the functional importance of the domain interfaces observed in C1C2BMUN. The structure imposes key constraints for models of neurotransmitter release and suggests that Munc13-1 bridges the vesicle and plasma membranes from the periphery of the membrane-membrane interface.
Mechanistic insights into neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity from the crystal structure of Munc13-1 C1C2BMUN
Junjie Xu,1,2,3,† Marcial Camacho,4,† Yibin Xu,1,2,3 Victoria Esser,1,2,3 Xiaoxia Liu,1,2,3 Thorsten Trimbuch,4 Yun-Zu Pan,1,2,3 Cong Ma,5,6 Diana R Tomchick,1,2,* Christian Rosenmund,4,* and Josep Rizo1,2,3,* Reinhard Jahn, Reviewing editor
Histone H1 is commonly used to assay kinase activity in vitro. As many promising targeted therapies affect kinase activity of specific enzymes involved in cancer transformation, H1 phosphorylation can serve as potential pharmacodynamic marker for drug activity within the cell. In this report we utilized a phosphoproteomic workflow to characterize histone H1 phosphorylation changes associated with two targeted therapies in the Kasumi-1 Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cell line. The phosphoproteomic workflow was first validated with standard casein phosphoproteins and then applied to the direct analysis of histone H1 from Kasumi-1 nuclear lysates. Ten H1 phosphorylation sites were identified on the H1 variants, H1.2, H1.3, H1.4, H1.5 and H1.x. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry profiling of intact H1s demonstrated global dephosphorylation of H1.5 associated with therapy by the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, and the Hsp90 inhibitor, 17AAG (17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin). In contrast, independent treatments with a nucleotide analog, proteosome inhibitor and histone deacetylase inhibitor did not exhibit decreased H1.5 phosphorylation. The data presented herein demonstrate that potential of histones to assess the cellular response of reagents that have direct and indirect effects on kinase activity that alters histone phosphorylation. As such, this approach may be a highly informative marker for response to targeted therapies influencing histone phosphorylation
Histone, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Chemotherapy, Phosphorylation
Assaying Pharmacodynamic Endpoints with Targeted Therapy: Flavopiridol and 17AAG Induced Dephosphorylation of Histone H1.5 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Liwen Wang,1,4 Sean W. Harshman,3,4 Shujun Liu,2,4 Chen Ren,1,4 Hua Xu,3,4 Larry Sallans,5 Michael Grever,2,4 John C. Byrd,2,4 Guido Marcucci,2,4 and Michael A. Freitas3,4,*
2011 Dec 1.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major burden in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR+, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and albuminuria (Alb+) are essential for the diagnosis of DKD, but their association with clinical variables and quality of care may be influenced by ageing. Methods Here we investigated the association of clinical variables and quality of care measures with eGFR+ and Alb+ in 157,595 T2DM individuals participating to the Italian Association of Clinical Diabetologists (AMD) Annals Initiative, stratified by age. Results The prevalence of eGFR+ and Alb+ increased with ageing, although this increment was more pronounced for low eGFR. Irrespective of age, both the eGFR+ and Alb + groups had the worst risk factors profile when compared to subjects without renal disease, showing a higher prevalence of out-of target values of HbA1c, BMI, triglycerides, HDL-C, blood pressure and more complex cardiovascular (CVD) and anti-diabetic therapies, including a larger use of insulin In all age groups, these associations differed according to the specific renal outcome examined: male sex and smoking were positively associated with Alb+ and negatively with eGFR+; age and anti-hypertensive therapies were more strongly associated with eGFR+, glucose control with Alb+, whereas BMI, and lipid-related variables with both abnormalities. All these associations were attenuated in the older (> 75 years) as compared to the younger groups (< 65 years; 65-75 years), and they were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Notably, Q-score values < 15, indicating a low quality of care, were strongly associated with Alb+ (OR 8.54; P < 0.001), but not with eGFR+. Conclusions In T2DM patients, the prevalence of both eGFR and Albuminuria increase with age. DKD is associated with poor cardiovascular risk profile and a lower quality of care, although these associations are influenced by the type of renal abnormality and by ageing. These data indicate that clinical surveillance of DKD should not be unerestimated in old T2DM patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12877-018-0732-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Diabetic kidney disease, Elderly, Type 2 diabetes, Cardiovascular disease
Diabetic kidney disease in the elderly: prevalence and clinical correlates
Giuseppina T. Russo,corresponding author1,9 Salvatore De Cosmo,2 Francesca Viazzi,3 Antonio Mirijello,2 Antonio Ceriello,4,5 Pietro Guida,6 Carlo Giorda,7 Domenico Cucinotta,1 Roberto Pontremoli,3 Paola Fioretto,8 and the AMD-Annals Study Group