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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. However, the etiology of PD remains largely unknown. Macroautophagy is known to play an essential role in the degradation of abnormal proteins and organelles. Furthermore, the loss of autophagy-related (Atg) genes results in neurodegeneration and abnormal protein accumulation. Since these are also pathologic features of Parkinson’s disease, the conditional impairment of autophagy may lead to improved animal models for the study of PD. Using transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of either the dopamine transporter or the engrailed-1 promoters, we generated mice with the conditional deletion of Atg7 in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, other regions of the midbrain, and also the hindbrain. This conditional impairment of autophagy results in the age-related loss of dopaminergic neurons and corresponding loss of striatal dopamine, the accumulation of low-molecular-weight α-synuclein, and the presence of ubiquitinated protein aggregates, recapitulating many of the pathologic features of PD. These conditional knock-out animals provide insight into the process of autophagy in Parkinson’s disease pathology.
Development and Characterization of a New Parkinson's Disease Model Resulting from Impaired Autophagy
Ishrat Ahmed,1,2,* Yideng Liang,1,2,* Sabitha Schools,1,2 Valina L. Dawson,1,2,3,4,5 Ted M. Dawson,corresponding author1,2,4,5 and Joseph M. Savittcorresponding author1,2
2012 Nov 14
A 73-year-old woman underwent deformity correction surgery (anterior lumbar interbody fusion of L2-L3-L4-L5-S1, pedicle subtraction osteotomy at L4, and posterior screw fixation from T10 to the pelvis) due to lumbar degenerative flat-back. Following the operation, the patient experienced pain in her back and buttocks, for which she regularly took medications. She reported frequently feeling a heavy and stretched sensation of pain after the operation in those areas, which made her regret undergoing the operation. However, at 33 months postoperatively, she reported that one day, while getting up from a chair, she felt a crack in her back, which was followed by an improvement in her back and buttock pain; thereafter, she stopped taking pain medications. Follow-up radiography revealed a bilateral rod fracture at the L4-5 level on the right side and at the L3-4 level on the left side. The overall pelvic parameters, except pelvic incidence, slightly changed after the rod fracture. Therefore, the broken rod was replaced and another rod was added to the broken rod area; however, the changed pelvic parameters were not corrected further during the reoperation. Following the reoperation, the patient showed improvements and she no longer required pain medication.
Lumbar, Osteotomy, Pelvic, Pain, Radiography
Rod Fracture Causing Relief of Back Pain That Developed After Adult Lumbar Degenerative Flat-Back Correction Surgery: A Case Report
Jeong-Hoon Choi,1 Jee-Soo Jang,1 and Il-Tae Jang2
Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked.
The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used.
Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors.
These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances.
Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimaki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225.
epidemiology, cohort studies, work schedule tolerance, sleep initiation, maintenance disorders
Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees
Paula Salo, PhD,1,2 Leena Ala-Mursula, PhD,3 Naja Hulvej Rod, PhD,4 Philip Tucker, PhD,5,6 Jaana Pentti, BSc,1 Mika Kivimaki, PhD,1,7 and Jussi Vahtera, PhD1,8
2014 Jul 1;