Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
576ºC at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:5140-42-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
ABM508 is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the N-terminal 485 amino acids of diphtheria toxin joined to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. When expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the tox promoter and signal sequence, ABM508 is severely degraded. When overexpressed from a thermoinducible lambda pR promoter fusion, ABM508 is largely insoluble. We compared the expression of ABM508 (501 amino acids) to a full-length mutant form of the toxin (CRM197; 535 amino acids) and found that CRM197 showed minimal proteolysis. Thus, the removal of the C-terminal 50 amino acids of the toxin destabilizes the protein, making it a target for proteases. Proteolysis of ABM508 could be reduced by removal of the tox signal sequence (thereby directing the protein to the cytoplasm) and growth in lon and htpR mutant strains of E. coli. We also showed that the solubility of tox gene products expressed in E. coli was directly related to the growth temperature of the culture. Thus, a fragment A fusion protein (223 amino acids), ABM508, and CRM197 were found in soluble extracts when expressed at 30 degrees C but could not be released by the same procedures after growth at 42 degrees C. On the basis of these observations, we fused the coding sequences for mature ABM508 to the trc promoter (inducible at 30 degrees C by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside) and expressed this construct in a lon htpR strain of E. coli. This plasmid made 10 mg of soluble tox protein per liter of culture (7.7% of the total cell protein) or 14 times more than our previous maximal level. Extracts from lon htpR cells harboring this plasmid had high levels of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, and although proteolysis still occurred, the major tox product corresponded to full-length ABM508.
High-level expression of a proteolytically sensitive diphtheria toxin fragment in Escherichia coli.
W R Bishai, R Rappuoli, and J R Murphy
A multidisciplinary study (geomorphology, sedimentology and palynology) shows that the landscapes of the southwest coast of Corsica have been deeply modified by humans and the climate since 3000 BC. Significant and rapid landscape transformations are recorded between the Chalcolithic and the Middle Bronze Ages (3000-1300 BC). Several major (2.2 ka BC, 1.2 ka BC) and local (3000 BC) detrital events affected the Taravo Lower Valley in relation to global climatic changes and anthropic activities. The vegetation dynamics since 3000 BC show alternating phases of agriculture and abandonment until the complete disappearance of the original forest populations in the vicinity of the Canniccia Marshes. An early phase of Olea cultivation is recorded between 2900 and 2300 BC. Plant macro-remains indicate that cereals, vine and many species of Fabaceae were cultivated in the nearby of the archaeological sites during the middle to the late Chalcolithic Age. The event of 2.2 ka BC corresponds to an abandonment phase in the lower Taravo Valley. Pastoralism dominated agricultural activities between 2200 and 1700 BC. During Roman times, agriculture is characterized by olive and vine cultivation. A new peak of pastoralism and the cultivation of Castanea are noted during invasion times (500 to 1000 AD), showing that invasions didn’t disturb agricultural activities in the Taravo Valley. During the Pisa Period (end of the 9th C. to then end of 13th C. AD), pastoralism declined and vine and cereals were cultivated in the very nearby of the Canniccia Marshes. During the Genoa Period upwards (end of the 13th C. to 1769 AD), a decline in agriculture and a recrudescence of the forest (maquis and pine) are recorded, leading to the settlement of a present-day vegetal landscape dominated by an Erica arborea maquis.
Early impact of agropastoral activities and climate on the littoral landscape of Corsica since mid-Holocene
Marc-Antoine Vella, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1,2,3,¤* Valerie Andrieu-Ponel, Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,4 Joseph Cesari, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Supervision,5 Franck Leandri, Investigation, Project administration, Supervision,5 Kewin Pêche-Quilichini, Investigation,6 Maurice Reille, Investigation,4 Yoann Poher, Investigation,4 Francois Demory, Investigation,1 Doriane Delanghe, Investigation,1 Matthieu Ghilardi, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision,1 and Marie-Madeleine Ottaviani-Spella, Project administration, Supervision2 Andrea Zerboni, Editor
Circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations are associated with altitude-induced anorexia in laboratory environments, but have never been measured at terrestrial altitude. This study examined time course changes in appetite, energy intake, body composition, and ghrelin constituents during a high-altitude trek.
Twelve participants [age: 28(4) years, BMI 23.0(2.1) kg m−2] completed a 14-day trek in the Himalayas. Energy intake, appetite perceptions, body composition, and circulating acylated, des-acylated, and total ghrelin concentrations were assessed at baseline (113 m, 12 days prior to departure) and at three fixed research camps during the trek (3619 m, day 7; 4600 m, day 10; 5140 m, day 12).
Relative to baseline, energy intake was lower at 3619 m (P = 0.038) and 5140 m (P = 0.016) and tended to be lower at 4600 m (P = 0.056). Appetite perceptions were lower at 5140 m (P = 0.027) compared with baseline. Acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower at 3619 m (P = 0.046) and 4600 m (P = 0.038), and tended to be lower at 5140 m (P = 0.070), compared with baseline. Des-acylated ghrelin concentrations did not significantly change during the trek (P = 0.177). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased from baseline to 4600 m (P = 0.045). Skinfold thickness was lower at all points during the trek compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.001) and calf girth decreased incrementally during the trek (P = 0.010).
Changes in plasma acylated and total ghrelin concentrations may contribute to the suppression of appetite and energy intake at altitude, but differences in the time course of these responses suggest that additional factors are also involved. Interventions are required to maintain appetite and energy balance during trekking at terrestrial altitudes.
Ghrelin, Hypoxia, Altitude-induced anorexia, Terrestrial altitude
Changes in appetite, energy intake, body composition, and circulating ghrelin constituents during an incremental trekking ascent to high altitude
Jamie Matu,1 John O’Hara,1 Neil Hill,2,4 Sarah Clarke,1 Christopher Boos,1,3 Caroline Newman,4 David Holdsworth,4 Theocharis Ispoglou,1 Lauren Duckworth,1 David Woods,1,4 Adrian Mellor,1,4 and Kevin Deightoncorresponding author1