White crystalline powder
Seeds of Brucea javanica
Yadanziolide A, isolated from the cultivated dry seeds of Brucea javanica, has strong antiviral activities with IC50 of 5.5 μM against tobacco mosaic virus. Yadanziolide A shows significant antitumor effects.
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:95258-14-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
We investigated gene expression responses in BALB/c mice exposed by gavage to 5 mg/kg bw/day of E171 for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. Food additive E171 (titanium dioxide) has been shown to induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in vitro as well as facilitating growth of colorectal tumours in vivo. Full genome expression changes of the colon of mice were investigated by using Agilent SurePrint G3 mouse Gene exp 60kv2 microarrays slides. The data presented in this DiB include all differentially expressed for each time point with EntrezGeneID, gene symbols, gene names and Log2FC as well as genes included in pathways after over-representation analysis in ConsensusPathDataBase. The functions of these genes in relation to the colon were described in our associated article (Proquin et al., 2017 in press) . Raw and normalized gene expression data are available through NCBI GEO (GEO accession: GSE92563).
Time course gene expression data in colon of mice after exposure to food-grade E171
Helo?se Proquin,a,? Marlon J. Jetten,a Marloes C.M. Jonkhout,a Luis G. GarduNo-Balderas,b Jacob J. Briede,a Theo M. de Kok,a Yolanda I. Chirino,b,c and Henk van Loverena
This study was carried out at district level to describe the cost structure and measure the effectiveness of delivering supplementary immunization activity (SIA) and routine immunization (RI) for measles in Benin, a country heavily affected by this disease.
This cost-effectiveness study was cross sectional and considered 1-year time horizon. RI consists to vaccinate an annual cohort of children aged 0-1 year old and SIA consists to provide a second dose of measles vaccine to children aged 0-5 years old in order to reach both those who did not seroconvert and who were not vaccinated through RI. Ingredients approach to costing was used. Effectiveness indicators included measles vaccine doses used, vaccinated children, measles cases averted and disability adjusted life years averted. Data were collected from all the 18 health care centers of the health district of Natitingou for the year 2011. In the analysis, the coverage was 89 % for RI and 104 % for SIA.
SIA total cost was higher than RI total cost (15,796,560 FCFA versus 9,851,938 FCFA). Personnel and vaccines were the most important cost components for the two strategies. Fuel for cold chain took a non-negligible part of RI total cost (4.03 %) because 83 % of refrigerators were working with kerosene. Cost structures were disproportionate as social mobilization and trainings were not financed during RI contrarily to SIA. In comparison with no intervention, the two strategies combined permitted to avoid 12,671 measles cases or 19,023 DALYs. The benefit of SIA was 5601 measles cases averted and 6955 additional DALYs averted. Cost per vaccinated child for SIA (442 FCFA) was lower than for RI (1242 FCFA), in line with previous data from the literature. Cost per DALY averted was 2271 FCFA (4.73 USD) for SIA and 769 FCFA (1.60 USD) for RI. Analysis showed that low vaccine efficacy decreased the cost-effectiveness ratios for the two strategies. SIA was more cost-effective when the proportion of previously unvaccinated children was higher. For the two strategies, costs per DALY were more likely to vary with measles case fatality ratio.
SIA is costlier than RI. Both SIA and RI for measles are cost-effective interventions to improve health in Benin compared to no vaccination. Policy makers could make RI more efficient if sufficient funds were allocated to communications activities and to staff motivation (trainings, salaries).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12962-015-0039-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Measles, Efficiency, Supplementary immunization activity, Routine immunization, Benin
Cost-effectiveness analysis of routine immunization and supplementary immunization activity for measles in a health district of Benin
Landry Kaucleycorresponding author and Pierre Levy
In the title compound, C36H31NO4, two spiro links connect the methyl-substituted pyrrolidine ring to the acenaphthylene and cyclohexanone rings. The cyclohexanone ring is further connected to the dioxalane ring by a third spiro junction. The five-membered ring of the acenaphthylen-1-one ring system adopts a flattened envelope conformation with the ketonic C atom as flap, whereas the dioxalane and pyrrolidine rings each have a twist conformation. The cyclohexanone ring assumes a boat conformation. Three intramolecular C?H?O hydrogen bonds involving both ketonic O atoms as acceptors are present. In the crystal, C?H?O hydrogen bonds connect centrosymmetrically related molecule into chains parallel to the b axis, forming rings of R 2 2(10)and R 2 2(8) graph-set motifs.
crystal structure, trispiropyrrolidines, acenaphthylene, spirocyclohexanones, dioxalane
Crystal structure of 5′′-benzylidene-1′-methyl-4′-phenyltrispiro[acenaphthylene-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,1′′-cyclohexane-3′′,2′′′-[1,3]dioxane]-2,6′′-dione
Kuppan Chandralekha,a Deivasigamani Gavaskar,b Adukamparai Rajukrishnan Sureshbabu,b and Srinivasakannan Lakshmia,*
2016 Mar 1