seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L.
>15.6mg/mL in DMSO
633.7±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
175-178 °C (dec.)(lit.)
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:357-57-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Licorice, one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in East Asia, has effects such as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and detoxifying. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of licorice on brucine-induced nephrotoxicity. Sprague Dawley rats were administered with brucine intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days with or without treatment with licorice. The content of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum, the activities of superoxide dismutase and content of glutathione, malonaldehyde in kidney tissue were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was employed to observe the histopathological changes of kidney. The expression and phosphorylation levels of protein were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The results illustrated that treatment with licorice extracts (LE) significantly protected against the brucine-induced nephrotoxicity by reducing the content of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, attenuating pathologic damage. The unbalance of oxidative stress was repaired by LE via increasing the level of glutathione, promoting the activities of superoxide dismutase and decreasing the content of malonaldehyde. In addition, LE overturned the influence of brucine on apoptosis-related protein and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that licorice may attenuate brucine-induced nephrotoxicity via inactivation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway. More importantly, the renoprotective effects may be mediated, at least partly, by preventing the activation of STAT3 protein.
STAT3; apoptosis; brucine; licorice; nephrotoxicity.
Licorice Extracts Attenuate Nephrotoxicity Induced by Brucine Through Suppression of Mitochondria Apoptotic Pathway and STAT3 Activation
Min Zhang 1 2, Chao Wang 1 2, Hua-Lin Cai 1 2, Jing Wen 1 2, Ping-Fei Fang 3 4
Brucine is one of the main bioactive and toxic constituents of the herb drug Semen Strychni. Here we aimed to determine dosing time-dependent hepatotoxicity of brucine, and to investigate the role of metabolism in generation of brucine chronotoxicity. Brucine was administered to wild-type or Npas2-/- (a clock disrupted model) mice at different circadian time points for toxicity and pharmacokinetic characterization. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase measurements and histopathological analysis. The role of Cyp3a11 in brucine metabolism was determined by chemical inhibition assays and Cyp3a11-overexpressing HEK293 cells. Hepatic circadian Cyp3a11 mRNA and protein levels were determined by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. The toxicity of brucine was more severe in the light phase [Zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 and ZT8] than in the dark phase (ZT14 and ZT20). Chemical inhibition and substrate metabolism assays suggested Cyp3a11 as a significant contributor to brucine metabolism. The Cyp3a11 mRNA, protein and activity in the livers of wild-type mice displayed significant circadian fluctuations. Npas2 ablation markedly down-regulated Cyp3a11 mRNA, protein and activity, and abrogated their circadian rhythms. The circadian time differences in brucine pharmacokinetics and liver distribution were lost in Npas2-/- mice, so were the time differences in brucine hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, chronotoxicity of brucine was determined by circadian variations in Cyp3a11 metabolism. The findings have implications in improving brucine (and possibly Semen Strychni) efficacy via dosing time optimization.
Brucine; Chronotoxicity; Circadian; Cyp3a11.
Cyp3a11 metabolism-based chronotoxicity of brucine in mice
Ziyue Zhou 1, Yanke Lin 1, Lu Gao 1, Zemin Yang 1, Shuai Wang 1, Baojian Wu 2
2019 Oct 1
Brucine and Strychnine are alkaloids isolated from the seeds of Strychnos nux vomica L., which have long been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of tumor. However, the effect of Brucine and Strychnine on colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, Brucine and Strychnine displayed profound inhibitory effects on the growth of human colon cancer cells. The results of flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the two alkaloids induced cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the growth of DLD1 xenografted tumors in nude mice was significantly suppressed in the Brucine or Strychnine treated group. Mechanistically, the Wnt/β-catenin is involved in this phenomenon, which is characterized by significantly increased expression of DKK1 and APC, whereas decreased expression of β-catenin, c-Myc, and p-LRP6 in CRC cells as well as tumor tissues. Collectively, Brucine and Strychnine have targeted inhibition for colon cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and it is valuable for future exploitation and utilization as an antitumor agent of CRC.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway; alkaloids; colon cancer; nux-vomica.
Alkaloids from nux vomica suppresses colon cancer cell growth through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway
Hua Ren 1, Jianping Zhao 1, Dongsheng Fan 1, Ze Wang 2, Tingjie Zhao 3, Yuejin Li 1, Yirui Zhao 1, David Adelson 4, Huiqin Hao 2