Alkaloid from the Chinese drug Hye-shang-yi-zhi-hao (Aconitum bullatifolium var. homotrichum, Ranunculaceae)
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
488.2±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
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The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails)—which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus—has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus) and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus) ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus?) franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus) gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus) bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus) cashi, Conus (Dauciconus) garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus?) zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus?) kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus?) lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus?) carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.
Glowing Seashells: Diversity of Fossilized Coloration Patterns on Coral Reef-Associated Cone Snail (Gastropoda: Conidae) Shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic
Jonathan R. Hendricks*
Despite the significance of tumour neoangiogenesis and the extensive knowledge on the molecular basis of blood vessel formation currently no quantitative data exist on the 3D microvascular architecture in human primary tumours and their precursor lesions. This prompted us to examine the 3D vascular network of normal colon mucosa, adenomas and invasive carcinomas by means of quantitative microvascular corrosion casting. Fresh hemicolectomy specimens from 20 patients undergoing cancer or polyposis coli surgery were used for corrosion casting, factor VIII and VEGF immunostaining. In addition, immunostaining was done on colorectal tissue from 33 patients with metastatic and non-metastatic carcinomas, polyposis coli and adenomas. This first quantitative analysis of intervessel and interbranching distances, branching angles and vessel diameters in human cancer specimens revealed distinct patterns of the microvascular unit in the tumour centre and periphery. Irrespective of the tumour localization and grading all individual tumours displayed qualitatively and quantitatively the same vascular architecture. This gives further evidence for the existence of a tumour type-specific vascular architecture as recently demonstrated for experimental tumours. Metastatic tumours displayed different vascular architectures only within hot spots, in terms of smaller intervascular distances than in non-metastatic tumours. Pre-cancerous lesions have in part virtually the same vascular architecture like invasive carcinomas. Comparison of VEGF immunostaining also suggests that angiogenesis sets in long before the progress towards invasive phenotypes and that the so-called angiogenic switch is more likely a sequence of events. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign www.bjcancer.com
angiogenesis, tumour vascular architecture, colorectal adenocarcinoma, adenoma, pre-cancerous lesions
3D microvascular architecture of pre-cancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas of the colon
M A Konerding,1 E Fait,1 and A Gaumann1,2
BACKGROUND/AIMS—Morphological variability of the trabecular meshwork could be of considerable importance for the proper intraoperative outcome of non-perforating antiglaucomatous surgery, such as deep sclerectomy and viscocanalostomy. The aim of this study was therefore to assess qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the trabecular meshwork in glaucoma patients undergoing trabeculectomy.
METHODS—Trabeculectomy specimens from 177 glaucoma patients were prepared for light microscopy; 100 specimens were found to be suitable for qualitative assessment and quantitative computerised image analysis; measurements were taken of the meridional diameter of Schlemm’s canal as well as the thickness of the trabecular meshwork at different positions.
RESULTS—The mean meridional diameter of Schlemm’s canal was 290 µm with the smallest values in the young patients with infantile and secondary glaucomas. the thickness of the trabecular meshwork ranged between 50-70 µm in the anterior region and between 100-130 µm for the posterior portion. The thickness of the anterior meshwork significantly decreased with age. The pigmentation of excised trabecular meshwork was found to be weak or even lacking in 68 patients. In 20 glaucoma patients the uveal meshwork was covered by an endothelial layer.
CONCLUSIONS—From the morphological point of view the risk of inadvertent perforation during deep sclerectomy in older, white glaucoma patients should be taken into account even by an experienced surgeon, because the anterior meshwork in these cases is very thin and trabecular pigmentation that can be used as a topographic landmark is often lacking. The functional success of non-perforating glaucoma surgery in many patients may be limited by endothelial covering of the trabecular meshwork.
Morphological variability of the trabecular meshwork in glaucoma patients: implications for non-perforating glaucoma surgery
T. Dietlein, P. Jacobi, C. Luke, and G. Krieglstein