This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Aglaia lawii
Cabraleadiol monoacetate/(3α,24S)-25-Hydroxy-20,24-epoxydammaran-3-yl acetate/cabraleadiol 3-acetate/3-O-acetylcabraleadiol/Dammarane-3,25-diol, 20,24-epoxy-, 3-acetate, (3α,24S)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
546.1±15.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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The effects of antithrombotic drugs on random and free flap survival have been investigated in the past, but the experimental and clinical results are not in agreement. A perforator-based critical ischaemia model was used to evaluate the effects of different perioperatively administered pharmaceutical agents on tissue ischaemia and to assess the potential additional haemorheological or vasodilative effects of antithrombotics on flap microcirculation. Combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy revealed an increase in certain microcirculation parameters in most groups in comparison with saline controls, and these changes correlated with flap survival. Clopidogrel and hirudin significantly improved the amount of viable flap tissue in comparison with controls, while unfractioned heparin had a negative effect on flap survival. Low molecular weight heparin, aspirin, pentoxifylline, and hydroxyethyl starch had no impact on the amount of viable flap tissue. A higher complication rate was observed in all experimental groups, but only clopidogrel had a negative impact on the flap viability. Our results add to the body of evidence supporting the conclusion that perioperative antithrombotic treatment improves flap survival. Clopidogrel and hirudin are effective pharmacological agents that significantly increased the viability of perforator-based skin flaps in rats, but at a higher risk of postoperative bleeding.
Impact of different antithrombotics on the microcirculation and viability of perforator-based ischaemic skin flaps in a small animal model
Andreas M. Fichter,a,1 Lucas M. Ritschl,1 Luisa K. Robitzky,1 Stefan Wagenpfeil,2 David A. Mitchell,1 Klaus-Dietrich Wolff,1 and Thomas Mucke1
Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.
Novel Insect Leaf-Mining after the End-Cretaceous Extinction and the Demise of Cretaceous Leaf Miners, Great Plains, USA
Michael P. Donovan, 1 , * Peter Wilf, 1 Conrad C. Labandeira, 2 , 3 Kirk R. Johnson, 4 and Daniel J. Peppe 5
The 6q25.1 locus was first identified via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Chinese women and marked by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2046210, approximately 180 Kb upstream of ESR1. There have been conflicting reports about the association of this locus with breast cancer in Europeans, and a GWAS in Europeans identified a different SNP, tagged here by rs12662670. We examined the associations of both SNPs in up to 61,689 cases and 58,822 controls from forty-four studies collaborating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, of which four studies were of Asian and 39 of European descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Case-only analyses were used to compare SNP effects in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+) versus negative (ER−) tumours. Models including both SNPs were fitted to investigate whether the SNP effects were independent. Both SNPs are significantly associated with breast cancer risk in both ethnic groups. Per-allele ORs are higher in Asian than in European studies [rs2046210: OR (A/G) = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26-1.48), p = 7.6×10−14 in Asians and 1.09 (95% CI 1.07-1.11), p = 6.8×10−18 in Europeans. rs12662670: OR (G/T) = 1.29 (95% CI 1.19-1.41), p = 1.2×10−9 in Asians and 1.12 (95% CI 1.08-1.17), p = 3.8×10−9 in Europeans]. SNP rs2046210 is associated with a significantly greater risk of ER− than ER+ tumours in Europeans [OR (ER−) = 1.20 (95% CI 1.15-1.25), p = 1.8×10−17 versus OR (ER+) = 1.07 (95% CI 1.04-1.1), p = 1.3×10−7, pheterogeneity = 5.1×10−6]. In these Asian studies, by contrast, there is no clear evidence of a differential association by tumour receptor status. Each SNP is associated with risk after adjustment for the other SNP. These results suggest the presence of two variants at 6q25.1 each independently associated with breast cancer risk in Asians and in Europeans. Of these two, the one tagged by rs2046210 is associated with a greater risk of ER− tumours.
Comparison of 6q25 Breast Cancer Hits from Asian and European Genome Wide Association Studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC)
Rebecca Hein, 1 , 2 , * Melanie Maranian, 3 John L. Hopper, 4 Miroslaw K. Kapuscinski, 4 Melissa C. Southey, 5 Daniel J. Park, 6 Marjanka K. Schmidt, 7 Annegien Broeks, 7 Frans B. L. Hogervorst, 8 H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquit, 9 Kenneth R. Muir, 10 Artitaya Lophatananon, 10 Suthee Rattanamongkongul, 11 Puttisak Puttawibul, 12 Peter A. Fasching, 13 , 14 Alexander Hein, 13 Arif B. Ekici, 15 Matthias W. Beckmann, 13 Olivia Fletcher, 16 Nichola Johnson, 16 Isabel dos Santos Silva, 17 Julian Peto, 17 Elinor Sawyer, 18 Ian Tomlinson, 19 , 20 Michael Kerin, 21 Nicola Miller, 22 Frederick Marmee, 22 , 23 Andreas Schneeweiss, 22 , 23 Christof Sohn, 22 Barbara Burwinkel, 22 , 24 Pascal Guenel, 25 , 26 Emilie Cordina-Duverger, 25 , 26 Florence Menegaux, 25 , 26 Therese Truong, 25 , 26 Stig E. Bojesen, 27 Børge G. Nordestgaard, 27 Henrik Flyger, 28 Roger L. Milne, 29 Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, 30 M. Pilar Zamora, 31 Javier Benitez, 32 Hoda Anton-Culver, 33 Argyrios Ziogas, 33 Leslie Bernstein, 34 Christina A. Clarke, 35 Hermann Brenner, 36 Heiko Muller, 36 Volker Arndt, 36 Christa Stegmaier, 37 Nazneen Rahman, 38 Sheila Seal, 38 Clare Turnbull, 38 Anthony Renwick, 38 Alfons Meindl, 39 Sarah Schott, 40 Claus R. Bartram, 41 Rita K. Schmutzler, 42 Hiltrud Brauch, 43 Ute Hamann, 44 Yon-Dschun Ko, 45 The GENICA Network, 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 Shan Wang-Gohrke, 48 Thilo Dork, 49 Peter Schurmann, 49 Johann H. Karstens, 50 Peter Hillemanns, 49 Heli Nevanlinna, 51 Tuomas Heikkinen, 51 Kristiina Aittomaki, 52 Carl Blomqvist, 53 Natalia V. Bogdanova, 54 Iosif V. Zalutsky, 55 Natalia N. Antonenkova, 55 Marina Bermisheva, 56 Darya Prokovieva, 56 Albina Farahtdinova, 56 Elza Khusnutdinova, 56 Annika Lindblom, 57 Sara Margolin, 58 Arto Mannermaa, 58 , 50 , 60 , 61 Vesa Kataja, 60 , 62 , 63 Veli-Matti Kosma, 59 , 60 , 61 Jaana Hartikainen, 59 , 60 , 61 Xiaoqing Chen, 64 Jonathan Beesley, 64 kConFab Investigators, 65 AOCS Group, 66 Diether Lambrechts, 67 Hui Zhao, 67 Patrick Neven, 68 Hans Wildiers, 68 Stefan Nickels, 1 Dieter Flesch-Janys, 69 Paolo Radice, 70 , 71 Paolo Peterlongo, 70 , 71 Siranoush Manoukian, 72 Monica Barile, 73 Fergus J. Couch, 74 Janet E. Olson, 74 Xianshu Wang, 75 Zachary Fredericksen, 74 Graham G. Giles, 76 , 77 Laura Baglietto, 76 , 77 Catriona A. McLean, 78 Gianluca Severi, 76 , 77 Kenneth Offit, 79 Mark Robson, 80 Mia M. Gaudet, 81 Joseph Vijai, 79 Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, 82 Vessela Kristensen, 82 , 83 Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, 82 , 83 Esther M. John, 84 , 85 Alexander Miron, 86 Robert Winqvist, 87 Katri Pylkas, 87 Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, 88 Mervi Grip, 89 Irene L. Andrulis, 90 , 91 , 92 Julia A. Knight, 93 , 94 Gord Glendon, 90 Anna Marie Mulligan, 95 , 96 Jonine D. Figueroa, 97 Montserrat Garcia-Closas, 97 , 98 Jolanta Lissowska, 99 Mark E. Sherman, 97 Maartje Hooning, 100 John W. M. Martens, 101 Caroline Seynaeve, 100 Margriet Collee, 102 Per Hall, 103 Keith Humpreys, 103 Kamila Czene, 103 Jianjun Liu, 104 Angela Cox, 105 Ian W. Brock, 105 Simon S. Cross, 106 Malcolm W. R. Reed, 107 Shahana Ahmed, 3 Maya Ghoussaini, 3 Paul DP. Pharoah, 3 , 108 Daehee Kang, 109 Keun-Young Yoo, 109 Dong-Young Noh, 110 Anna Jakubowska, 111 Katarzyna Jaworska, 111 , 112 Katarzyna Durda, 111 Elżbieta Złowocka, 111 Suleeporn Sangrajrang, 113 Valerie Gaborieau, 114 Paul Brennan, 114 James McKay, 114 Chen-Yang Shen, 115 , 116 Jyh-Cherng Yu, 117 Huan-Ming Hsu, 117 Ming-Feng Hou, 118 Nick Orr, 119 Minouk Schoemaker, 120 Alan Ashworth, 119 Anthony Swerdlow, 120 Amy Trentham-Dietz, 121 Polly A. Newcomb, 121 , 122 Linda Titus, 123 Kathleen M. Egan, 124 Georgia Chenevix-Trench, 64 Antonis C. Antoniou, 108 Manjeet K. Humphreys, 108 Jonathan Morrison, 108 Jenny Chang-Claude, 1 Douglas F. Easton, 108 and Alison M. Dunning 3 , *